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New York State Museum Bulletin 

Application pending for admission as second-class matter at the Post Office at Albany N Y 
imder the act of August 24, 1913 ' ' 

Published monthly 

No. 181 


January i, 191 6 

New York State Museum 

John M. Clarke, Director 






Introduction 7 

The development of the quarry in- 
dustry in New York 8 

General features of rocks and their 

commercial adaptability 12 

The origin and classification of 

rocks j2 

Rock structures 16 

Differential parting 21 

Chemical and physical properties 
of rocks which influence their 

commercial uses 24 

The examination and testing of 

stone -i-i 

Main features of the geology of 

New York State 50 

The crystalline silicate rocks 58 

Preliminary discussion and defi- 58 

nition of terms 58 

Granite c8 

Syenite and anorthosite 60 

Diorite 61 

Gabbro " 52 

Diabase or trap 63 

Gneiss and schist , 64 

Serpentine 65 

Pegmatite '.'.'.'.'.. 66 



Field occurrence of the granites, 

gneisses, traps etc 69 

The St Lawrence River granites 69 
Granitic rocks in the western 

Adirondacks yg 

Granitic rocks in the eastern 

Adirondacks go 

Granitic rocks in the Highlands 


The dark-colored, basic rocks. . 
The occurrence of pegmatite in 

New York ' j^^ 

General features, field relations 

and uses of pegmatites 154 

The local distribution of pegma- 
tites in New York State 160 

The New York marble quarries.. 176 
General characters of mai;bles ..176 
Geology of the New York mar- 

bles 181 

The Adirondack section 182 

The Highlands — Taconic area. . 193 

Nonmetamorphic marbles 203 

Serpen tinous marbles; verde an- 
tique and ophicalcite 205 

Index 209 




Regents of the University 
With years when terms expire 

1926 Pliny T. Sexton LL.B. LL.D.C/ia«c^//or - - Palmyra 

1927 Albert Vander Veer M.D. M.A. Ph.D. LL.D. 

Vice Chancellor Albany 

1922 Chester S. Lord M.A. LL.D. ------ New York 

1918 William Nottingham M.A. Ph.D. LL.D. - -Syracuse 
192 1 Francis M. Carpenter ------- Mount Kisco 

1923 Abram I. Elkus LL.B, D.C.L. ----- New York 

1924 Adelbert Moot LL.D. ------- Buffalo 

1925 Charles B. Alexander M.A. LL.B. LL.D. 

Litt.D. ----------- Tuxedo 

1919 John Moore ---------- Elmira 

1 9 16 Walter Guest Kellogg B.A. - - - - - Ogdensburg 

19 1 7 (Vacant) 

1920 (Vacant) 

President of the University 
and Commissioner of Education 

John H. Finley M.A. LL.D. L.H.D. 

Deputy Commissioner and Assistant Commissioner for Elementary Edu cation 

Thomas E. Finegan M.A. Pd.D. LL.D. 

Assistant Commissioner for Higher Education 

Augustus S. Downing M.A. L.H.D. LL.D. 

Assistant Commissioner for Secondary Education 

Charles P. Wheelock B.S. LL.D. 

Director of State Library 

James I. Wyer, Jr, M.L.S. 

Director of Science and State Museum 

John M. Clarke Ph.D. D.Sc. LL.D. 

Chiefs and Directors of Divisions^ 

Administration, George M. Wiley M.A. 
Agricultural and Industrial Education, Arthur D. Dean D.Sc, 

Archives and History, James A. Holden B.A., Director 
Attendance, James D. Sullivan 
Educational Extension, William R. Watson B.S. 
Examinations, Harlan H. Hornter M.A. 
Inspections, Frai^k H. Wood M.A. 
Law, Frank B. Gilbert B.A. 
Library School, Frank K. Walter M.A. M.L.S. 
School Libraries, Sherman Williams Pd.D. 
Statistics, Hiram C. Case 
Visual Instruction, Alfred W. Abrams Ph.B. 

The University of the State of Nezv York 

Science Department, March 2, ipij 

Dr John H. Finley 

President of the University 

Sir : I have the honor to transmit to you herewith and to recom- 
mend for pubhcation as a bulletin of the State Museum, a manu- 
script and illustrations of a report on The Quarry Materials of 
New York — Granite, Gneiss, Trap and Marble, by David H. 
Newland, Assistant State Geologist. 

Very respectfully 

John M. Clarke 


Approved for publication this i^th day of March ipij 

President of the University 

New York State Museum Bulletin 

Application pending for admission as second-class matter at the Post Office at Albany, N. Y., 
under the act of August 24, 19 12 

Published monthly 

No. 181 ALBANY, N. Y. January i, 1916 

New York State Museum 

John M. Clarke, Director 




INTRODUCTION ^"-^l«t(|n*]J!i^ 

This report is the partial fulfilment of a plan to describe the 
quarry resources of the State from the present-day standpoint. It 
was the original purpose to include in the report a description of 
the sandstone and limestone quarries as well as those of the crystal- 
line rocks. The task of collecting the information for a complete 
report, however, would have involved a considerable delay in the 
publication of the results of the first part of the investigation, which 
covers the crystalline areas of the Adirondacks and southeastern 
New York, and it was thought advisable to issue that part separately. 
It is the hope of the writer that a second report on the stratified 
rocks may be prepared within a reasonable time. 

The division of the subject into two sections as outlined follows 
a natural line of demarcation in the geographical distribution of the 
formations ; it likewise has a basis in scientific and economic con- 
siderations so apparent as to need no emphasis in this place. 

The only description of the building stones of New York at all 
complete that has been available hitherto is found in the two 
bulletins by John C. Smock. The earlier^ of these (1888) was of 
preliminary character, mainly devoted to the description of indi- 
vidual quarries. The second,^ published in 1890, included most 

IN. Y. State Mus. Bui. 3, Albany, 

2N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 10, Albany, 1890. 



of the descriptive matter of the earlier report but also contained 
chapters on the use of stone in cities, on the durability of stone, 
and the physical and chemical testing of stone ; it was one of the 
first important quarry reports in this country to treat the subject 
from the scientific standpoint. The physical determinations as 
carried out for the report have little practical application at present, 
as the theory and tedhnic of laboratory tests have been almost 
revolutionized in the last few years. Naturally, there have also 
been great changes in the economic situation of the local industry. 

Reports of more restricted compass have been issued at different 
times. A brief account of the New York State quarry industry 
was given in the volumes of the Tenth Census.-^ A paper on the 
quarries of southeastern New York, of descriptive character, by 
E. C. Eckel," was published in the report of the State Geologist 
for 1900. The limestones were described rather fully in 1901 by 
H. Ries,^ and the bluestone industry by H. T. Dickinson in 1903.* 

With few exceptions, all the quarry localities described in this 
bulletin have been personally visited, the field work occupying parts 
of the summers of 1912 and 1913. The samples obtained in the 
field have been used for optical, physical and chemical investigations 
in accordance with recent practice in the testing of quarry stones. 

The writer has received valuable assistance in both the field and 
laboratory from R. W. Jones of the Museum stafif, who is re- 
sponsible for much of the chemical work undertaken for the report, 
and from H. Mattimore of the bureau of research. State Depart- 
ment of Highways, who carried out physical tests on many samples 
of granites. To them and also to the individual quarry operators 
who have extended numerous courtesies, the writer desires to ex- 
press his obligations. 



The extraction of stone for building and other purposes in this 
State has gained prominence as an industry only within relatively 
recent years. The use of stone in structures, however, goes back 
to the colonial period. As the most available of the permanent 
structural materials, it was employed by the early settlers in walls. 

IV. 10, Washington, 1884. 

2 Albany, 1902. Also printed separately. 

3 N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 44, Albany, 1901. 
* N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 61, Albany, 1903. 


foundations and occasionally for entire buildings, and there still 
exist good examples of such work in many of the older com.- 
munities where they have stood for two centuries and more. 

The stone for the early masonry- was seldom quarried from solid 
ledges. Very little of it was cut soar •otherwise prepared, but- it was 
mostly laid as rubblework. .Field -Stones were the kind mainly used, 
as they were nearly everywhere abundant and -the cheapest to secure, 
and their removal from the land was desirable from an-. agricultural 
standpoint. These stones, it may be remarked, are not indigenous 
to the locality of their occurrence, but with the soil in which they 
are found were transported from a more northerly latitude in the 
sweep of the Laurentian ice sheet that finally extended over the 
whole State. The bowlders consist of granite, gneiss, sandstone 
and other rocks hard enough to resist the erosion of ice and water, 
and of a durability tested bythousands of years exposure to the 
weather. ; i-.ii -::■■ 

There seems no certainty as to>thg-place or time^of the \fitfst regular 
quarry operations. Very likely the earliest work: was • somewhere 
in the Hudson valley section, and the quarrying of limestone for the 
manufacture of lime suggests itself '.as the object of the first steady 
production of stone. Limestone was also required for the making 
of iron which was estabhshed on a; permanent basis in New Yrork 
State about 1751, when the Sterling furnace in Orangei county was 
built. At the beginning of the last century the manufacture of lime 
had become an important industry in the Hudson River valley. 
About 1820 the manufacture. i.of m'^t-ural -.cement was started in 
Ulster and Onondaga counties, the basis of the industry being an 
impure limestone which by calcination and grinding makes a high- 
grade hydraulic cement. From the beginning New York State held 
a prominent place in the cement industry ; by 1840 Ulster county 
alone was producing at the rate of 600,000 bai^rels a year, according 
to Mather. The output of natural cenrcnf-Tncfeased to over 4,000,- 
000 barrels a year, but about the year 1900 it beganrto Idecline owing 
to the chfeapening of the cost of Portland cerjiertt." ' | 

The construction of the Erie canal gave an impetus to the quarry- 
ing of stone, since considerable quantities of dimension stone were 
used in the canal locks. It also afforded means for the conveyance 
of stone from the central and western parts of the State to the 
more thickly settled region in the east. Thus the, Medina and 
Onondaga building stones were ffiaWa^aif£tble?^^y~T§46 there had 
developed a considerable trade in flagstone' which 'was o1>tained 
from the same regions as now, that iSj' -from Ulster, Sullivan, Dekr 



ware and Greene counties, and was shipped to New York and other 
cities along the coast. The annual product at that time is given 
by Mather as 3.500,000 square feet. 

The stone industry of the State was first made the subject of 
detailed investigation in the work of the Tenth Census of 1880. 
The information gathered by the census included notes on the 
occurrence of building stone in the State and statistics of the 
capital investment represented in the quarries, the number of em- 
ployees and production. At that time New York ranked sixth 
among the states in size of its quarry industry, with an output 
valued at $1,261,495. The industry had then reached its present 
stage of development so far as variety of products is concerned, but 
was destined to great changes in technic and to a great increase of 

The growth of the quarry industry was particularly rapid in the 
decade from 1890 to 1900. This was a period of remarkable 
advancement in all kinds of engineering work and manufacturing, 
in which New York participated to its full share. The metallurgical 
and chemical uses of limestone showed great increase and continued 
to grow in the subsequent years. By the year 1900 the annual 
product of the State had reached a value of $4,039,102 as shown 
in the reports of the United States Geological Survey. This gave 
New York third place in the list, next after Vermont, Pennsylvania, 
as now, holding first rank. 

In the year 191 3, the latest for which statistics are available, the 
production was valued at $6,763,054, the vtaluati'on being placed on 
the materials at the quarry and not including slate or stone used in 
cement manufacture. The figures for the different products and 
kinds of stone, as returned to the State Geological Survey, are as 
follows : 

Production of stone in New York in 1913 









$45 911 
lOI 198 
127 5S6 

28s 64s 

S17 013 
81 330 

682 984 

I236 650 
2 386 632 

I36 068 
I 358 302 

43 406 

306 376 

5335 642 
3 852 678 





46 267 

I 001 170 

I 321 272 
I 001 170 


ls6o 310 

J98 343 

$689 530 

f3 670 719 

$1 744 152 

16 763 054 

A review of the industry for the last few years shows that 
progress has been rapid in some branches, while others have fairly 


held their own, and that one or two branches have actually declined. 
The trade in bluestone within the last seven or eight years has 
fallen off about 50 per cent, owing to the increasing use of cement 
in street work. The artificial structural materials — stucco, con- 
crete and terra cotta — also have affected adversely the market for 
building stone by which all quarries have been more or less affected. 
It is impossible of course to predict whether the present popularity 
of these materials will continue but it is. not likely that they will 
make such great inroads upon the market for stone in the future 
as in the past. The use of cement has had one compensating fea- 
ture in that it has made a large demand for crushed stone though 
this represents a much lower grade of product than building stone. 
The quarries of limestone at present contribute more than one- 
half of the total value of the stone products of the State, a ratio 
which holds also in the country generally. It is the kind most com- 
monly marketed for crushed stone, and is also extensively employed 
in metallurgy and chemical manufactures. 


Section i 



Rocks may be defined in simplest 'terms as mineral aggregates. 
To this definition there may be added also the quality of solidity, 
an inseparable characteristic perhaps in the popular mind, though 
not essential from the standpoint of the geologist. These aggre- 
gates are made up of a variety of minerals, either singly or in 
mechanical mixture. They also differ among themselves in their 
structural features, in the manner in which the minerals are as- 
sembled and held together, that is, their textures, and of course 
according to origin. . 

The consideration of origin is the most important for the classifi- 
cation of rocks in the first instance. On that basis they may all 
be divided into two general groups : ( i ) the igneous rocks, which 
include all that have consolidated from a molten state and (2) 
the sedimentary rocks, inclusive of all that have been deposited by 
water, either in a state of suspension (mechanical action) or solu- 
tion (chemical action). To the latter may be added also the small 
class of wind-laid or eolian deposits which are closely allied with 
the mechanical sediments in their structure and features of occur- 

To these groups which embrace all rocks from the standpoint of 
origin, it is custoimiary tO' add a third group of coordinate rank in 
the classification, or (3) the metamorphic rocks. This group in- 
cludes those members of either igneous or sedimentary derivation 
that have undergone great changes which involve a physical re- 
arrangement and also at times a chemical transformation of the 
components with the development of a new set of minerals. 

There is naturally no .sharp line of division between the meta- 
morphic and the other groups ; on the other hand, the process of 
change may be followed in many cases through all the stages from 
the one to the other, as from an unaltered sediment like clay 
through shale and slate to hard and thoroughly crystallized schist 
or gneiss. It is the general practice, however, to place only the 
more completely changed types in the metamorphic class, and 
especially those whose origin may not readily be discovered. 


The igneous and metamorphic rocks are distinguished from the 
sedimentary by their crystalline character, the minerals of hoth 
having crystallized within the mass. The two are closely associated 
in areal distribution and together make up the oldest land surfaces 
now exposed to view. The great Adirondack highland consists 
entirely of their representatives, all antedating the earliest of the 
sedimentary rocks that lie upon its border and that- in fact have 
been derived from the disintegration and erosion of the crystallines. 

The structure and appearance of the different groups are con- 
ditioned by the agencies which have operated in their formation. 
These features can be best explained, therefore, in the light of the 
physical and chemical processes now effective within the earth and 
that have been in force probably since primitive geological times. 
The general scientific conception of the earth is that of a cooling 
body, with the interior in a highly heated state, sufficiently hot to 
produce instant fusion on release of the load of overlying rocks. 
If the earth was once thoroughly molten, as is postulated by most 
geologists, then the cooling process must have led to the formation 
of an igneous crust in the first instance. This primitive crust, 
through the attack of waters which settled upon it and the decom- 
posing effects of the gases of the atmosphere, afforded the source 
of the earliest sediments, which were deposited in the depressed 
portions occupied by the seas. There are no known representatives 
at present of these earliest igneous and sedimentary formations. 

The conditions of cooling, however, must produce a continuous 
source of strain within the earth in the effort of the outer portion 
to adjust itself to the still shrinking interior. The periodic release 
of this strain is evidenced in the production of faults and folds 
within the crust, affording the relief of pressure necessary for the 
liquefaction of the potentially molten rock in the interior and its 
migration toward the surface. Igneous activity, consequently, has 
not died out, but is still manifest in volcanoes and may be in progress 
in the hidden depths through the slow movement of large bodies 
that never reach the surface. 

It is also believed that crustal adjustments take place in conse- 
quence of the shifting of load upon the the superstructure through 
the work of rivers. The large rivers bear immense amounts of 
detritus to be deposited in the seas hundreds and even thousands of 
miles from the sources. The continental interiors are being worn 
down and the coastal plains built up in this way. The change of 


load, it is thought, is compensated by a transfer of material in the 
substratum in the opposite direction, which causes a sinking of the 
overweighted part and a corresponding elevation of the lighter 

The adjustments, however occasioned, are accompanied by im- 
portant results in regard to rocks. Near the surface these yield to 
the strain by fracture, which may take the form of innumerable 
division planes or joints that break up the masses into polygonal 
blocks. Or again, there may be formed one or more great fractures 
along which the rocks have undergone appreciable differential move- 
ment with the production of crushed zones. These movements, if 
sudden, are accompanied by earthquakes. The large fractures may 
extend downwards for indefinite distances, affording ready channels 
for the passage of igneous material toward the surface, and thus 
are connected with volcanic action. They are frequently found 
with a filling of some igneous rock like trap or porphyry, marking 
the site of former eruptions. 

Within the depths of the earth a point may be reached where the 
rocks can not accommodate themselves by fracture und^r the stress 
of cubical compression, but adjust themselves by plastic yielding or 
flowage. The weight of the overlying load causes them to have a 
certain mobility, although actually in a solid state. Under unequal 
stress as developed by side thrusts, they tend to move by flowage 
toward the direction of least pressure. The depth at which this 
method of deformation becomes effective has been estimated by 
calculation and experiment at from 6 to 12 miles, the latter being 
perhaps the maximum for the very hard resistant rocks. The in- 
fluence of this mechanical action is augmented by the heat incident 
to the depth at which it takes place and no doubt also by occluded 
waters and gasses which facilitate the solution and recrystallization 
of the minerals. 

The characteristics that are thus produced in rocks by com- 
pression within the earth's interior are quite different from those 
originally inherent in either igneous or sedimentary types and 
belong to the metamorphic class. Members of the latter, like most 
igneous rocks, possess a crystalline development, each mineral hav- 
ing crystallized acording to its definite habit, but there are differ- 
ences in the arrangement of the minerals which is quite typical. 
Instead of a uniform distribution that arises from the cooling of 
an igneous magma, producing a homogeneous aspect, whatever 
plane may be exposed to view, they show a parallel structure and 

Plate I 

Photo by G. vail lugeii 

Joint Structure in horizontal sediments, Ausable Chasm. The course of 
the main vertical joints is followed by the river. 


their appearance varies with the direction of the surface with respect 
to the structure. This parallehsm is brought about by the Hnear 
arrangement of certain constituents hke mica or hornblende which 
have tabular or elongated forms ; or it may be produced by the 
separation of unlike minerals in layers. There is some analogy 
between such structure and that of stratification in the sediments. 
But it is no criterion as to the origin of the rock for it is quite 
prevalent among those of igneous derivation. This structure is 
commonly called foliation or schistosity. It denotes usually 
weakened cohesion between the minerals ; and rocks split more 
evenly along the foliation than in other diredtions. 

The changes accomplished by metamorphism are not limited 
ordinarily to a physical rearrangement of the constituents. In 
many instances there results also a breaking up of the mineral 
compounds and their crystallization in new forms, more stable 
under the conditions. The degree to which the chemical alteration 
may be carried depends upon the nature of the rock and the agencies 
at work upon it. An igneous rock like granite under the same 
influences is more resistant to chemical changes than a sediment 
like shale. In fact, granite undergoes little alteration beyond the 
crushing down of the quartz and feldspar crystals and possibly a 
certain amoimt of recrystallization, producing a parallel appearance. 
The basic igneous rocks (those with low percentages of silica) in 
which the iron, magnesia and lime compounds are well represented, 
are more prone to chemical change ; they form readily such rocks 
as amphibolite, serpentine and various schists. Among sediments, 
the limestones are recrystallized into marbles, but in the presence of 
silica and other compounds existing as original impurities or later 
introduced, they may be converted into garnetiferous, tremolitic or 
micaceous schists or amphibolites. Sandstones are hardened by 
secondary growth of the quartz grains or by deposition of silica 
cement so as to form quartzites. Shales are converted into slates, 
with microscopic mica and feldspar crystals ; or by further meta- 
morphism into schists and gneisses. Inasmuch as the agencies of 
metamorphism are mainly restricted to the deeper zones within the 
earth, the rocks which bear widespread evidence of their effects 
must at some time in their history have been buried far below the 
surface. It is only through removal of many thousands of feet 
• of overlying rock by erosion that they are now exposed to view. 
They are found, therefore, among the older geological formations 
and include the very earliest members of which we have knowledge. 



The physical features associated with the field occurrence of rocks 
may be considered under the head of structures. Such features 
include joints, faults and folds, to name some of the more important, 

Joints. One of the most evident characters, common to all rocks 
whatever their origin, is due to the divisional planes that intersect 
the foodies so that they are never continuous solids, but are broken 
up into small blocks. These divisional planes or joints may be but 
a few inches apart, or they may occur at intervals of 50 or loc 
feet. In fact, there is every variation almost in their frequency and 
in their direction with respect to each other. Very commonly there 
are three sets of joints which intersect at high angles, producing 
nearly rectangular prisms ; this form is quite characteristic of the 
sedimentary and of the coarser-grained igneous rocks ; but no 
absolute rule can be laid down for their occurrence. Their attitude 
wlith re'spect tO' the surface contours and their spacing are importamt 
points to be considered in the location of quarry sites, especially 
if the stone is to be used in dimension or monumental work. 

Joints are in part primary characteristics, that is, they have been 
produced in the natural course of consolidation of rocks, and in 
part arise from stresses extem'ally applied after the rocks were 
consolidated. The former kind is illustrated by the prismatic or 
columnar jointing found in exposures of fine-grained igneous rocks 
such as have cooled in narrow channels or near the surface. Fine 
examples are to be seen in the Palisades diabase. Such jointing is 
the result of strains set up in the process of cooling and proceeds 
always at right angles to the exposed surface. 

In the sedimentary rocks, the bedding is a plane of weakened 
cohesion among the mineral particles arid thus marks a direction 
of potential jointing which probably may result in actual separation 
on exposure of the beds to drying. The , sedimentary rocks also 
exhibit joints that intersect the bedding at right angles, and in some 
oaises they may be referred to the same cause, contraction on evap- 
oration of the contained water. 

It is generally considerecj, however, that joints are mostly; second- 
ary fractures resulting from externally applied stresses. Com- 
pression arising from crustal readjustments, or torsional and vibra- 
tory strains incident thereto, is given the greatest importance in 
recent contributions to the subject of jointing. The application of a 
single stress may be resolved into two components at right angles to 
each other and forming an angle of 45° with the direction of the 

Plate 2 

Plioto by J. N. Nevins 

Joint structure, Little Falls syenite. Vertical and horizontal joints in an 
igneous rock. 


Stress. Thus two joint systems arise from a single force and even 
more complex fractures may result, as has been demonstrated by 

In most rock exposures there are at least two systems of vertical 
or highly inclined planes' nearly at right angles, and one that lies 
approximately horizontal, or. in the sedimentary and metamorphic 
rocks, follows the bedding or schistosity. 

The joints in one direction may be more clearly marked and per- 
sistent than in other directions. They can be divided into principal 
joints and minor joints. The latter often originate and die out in 
a short distance, but the major joints are likely to continue over 
wide areas. Within the crystallines of the Adirondacks, the most 
persistent joints have a northerly to northeasterly trend with a 
complementary set at right angles. 

A series of closely spaced vertical joints is known to quarrymen 
as a heading. The zone of broken rock is used as a back or heading 
to work against. In such close jointing, there is often evidence of 
more or less faulting in the smoothed and striated- surfaces and 
the formation of secondary minerals. A weathered appearance is 
also characteristic of such zones, as they serve as channels for the 
admission of surface, waters. 

The igneous rocks, especially those like granite that occur in 
bosses and knobs, show at times a series of close-set fractures, 
horizontal or slightly curved in conformity with the surface, that 
divide the mass into parallel plates. This is known as sheet struc- 
ture and is common in many of the New England and southern 
granites, but appears to be rare in the Adirondacks, at least in its 
more typical form, although some quarries show incipient or im- 
perfectly developed sheets. The origin of this structure has re- 
ceived much attention from geologists, with the proposal of various 
explanations. Since the fractures follow the surface oonitouris in 
most cases and gradually diminish in their frequency and strength 
with depth, there seems to be good reason for connecting them with 
some superficial process like the strains set up by temperature varia- 
tions. The subject is well discussed in Dale's reports on the quar- 
ries of the New England States.^ 

Faults, The phenomena incident to displacements of the rocks 
along fractures are quite common in the crystalline areas, and also 

1 Proceed. Washington Acad. Sci., v. 7, July 1905, p. 267-75. 

2 For example, " The Chief Commercial Granites of Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire and Rhode Island." U. S. Geo!. Sur. Bui. 354, 1908, p. 22-29. 



in the older stratified formations. They result from strains in the 
outer zone of fracture and thus are connected with the formation 
of secondary joints. As already noted, a system of very marked 
jointing is often accompanied by differential motion of the rocks 
involved, which is denoted by their polished surfaces. When the 
displacement is considerable, the rocks along the fracture are much 
broken and sometimes mashed into a mineral pulp in which much 
alteration has taken place. 


Fig. I Simple faults. 
b the reversed fault 

illustrates the common or normal fault, and 

Faulting is most common and of the greatest magnitude in the 
Adirondack area of which the whole eastern and southeastern 
boundaries between the upraised and folded crystallines and the 
horizontal Paleozoic sediments are defined by a series of faults. Like 
the massive joint systems of that section, they have a northeasterly 
to northerly trend ; their downthrow is toward the east. Some of 
the: interior Adirondack valleys are undoubtedly the result of fault- 
ing, either of single or compound type, but in this case, the evidences 
of actual displacement are not so apparent since it is confined to 
the crystallines alone. Valleys with abrupt slopes on both sides may 
be due to the sinking of the block between two faults, as is thought 
to be the origin of the Lake George basin. There is need of caution, 
however, in ascribing the existence of scarps and deep valleys in 
this region to faulting, as the normal course of weathering and 
particularly the wear of glacial ice would tend to produce sharp 
contours along the main joint systems. 

Fig. 2 Normal faulting in inclined strata; the same beds outcrop repeat- 
edly when traced across the strike 


For present purposes, it is not necessary to enter upon a dis- 
cussion of the various types of faults and their effects upon rock 
structure. They are generally to be avoided in the laying out of 
quarries. If the aim is to produce crushed stone, their presence 
may not be objectionable, but even helpful; though care must be 
used lest the rock be decomposed or so shattered by the faulting 
as to lose its qualities of hardness and toughness. In mining 
engineering they are of great importance, and they should be given 
due consideration also in the plans for permanent foundations and 
structures, as they mark the lines along which future crustal dis- 
turbances may occur. 

Folds. The original arrangement of the sedimentary rocks, as 
determined by their deposition layer by layer upon the flat or 
slightly sloping sea bottom, is that of a series of parallel and nearly 
horizontal sheets. Upraisal into land may take place so gradually 
and uniformly as to preserve this attitude almost unchanged. Thus 
the great belts of limestones, shales and sandstones which occupy 
practically all the State south of the Mohawk and west of the 
Hudson, show almost no relative disturbance throughout their 
extent, although they have been elevated through a range of 2000 
feet or more. When some of the formations are traced eastward 
from the Hudson toward the New England border, they rapidly 
lose the appearance of horizontality and assume inclined positions 
so as to present their upturned eroded edges to the surface. The 
new arrangement reflects the influence of lateral compression in 
bending and folding the strata so as to bring them into smaller 

The development of folds or flexures can be traced in the rocks 
through all stages from simple to very intricate forms. Every case 
of folding, however, may be reduced to a variation of two simple 
basic types, that of the uparched or saddle fold and the inverted 
type or downfold. The former, called an anticline, is recognized 
in the field, where the arch itself is concealed or eroded away, by 
the inclinations o.f the same beds in opposite directions from the 
central line or axis. The second type, called the syncline, has 
inward sloping sides which meet to form a trough.^ 

Simple open folds may have symmetrical limbs which are inclined 
at the same angles. This is rather exceptional and the sides more 

1 The attitude of folds in the field is found by taking observations of 
the inclinations and direction of the beds referred to the horizontal plane. 
The angle of greatest inclination to that plane is the dip; and the direction 
of outcrop with reference to the true north is the strike. 



often show different inclinations. The close, compressed folds have 
straight sides which dip in nearly the same direction. The arches 
in such cases are often overturned so that one side rests upon the 

Fig. 3 Folded strata, showing a syncline bounded by two anticlines or 

other. Examples of the open types of folding are found in the 
strata that lie on the borders of our mountain areas and are oc- 
casionally seen in the limestones and sandstones of the Mohawk 
and central Hudson valleys. In the interior of the mountains, the 
folds become compressed or overturned and develop minor flexures, 
superimposed on the larger ones so as to produce a very complicated 

Folding of the intense kind is accompanied by metamorphism. 
The metamorphic rocks like marble, slate and schist are invariably 
highly folded. So intricate is the result of this folding upon the 
crystalline rocks of the Adirondacks, followed as it has been by 
profound erosion, that the nature of the flexures are only rarely 
determinable, though the high angles of dip and their conformity 
for considerable distances indicate strongly compressed strata. 

The crystalline limestones and marbles, owing to their uniforrii- 
ity and the readiness with which they yield to stress by plastic 
movement, often effectually conceal the existence of folds. When 
seams of slightly different character or stringers of foreign materials 
are present, these will generally be found to be bent into a succession 
of winds and inverted folds that exemplify in limited compass the 
actual contortion that has taken place on a large scale. 

Fig. 4 Folding of the Paleozoic strata in the vicinity of Kingston, N. Y. 
After N. H. Darton 

Great masses of igneous rock, like the areas of granite, syenite, 
and anorthosite in the Adirondacks, undergo much less shortening 


from compression when once they have consolidated. The very 
early gneisses of probably igneous derivation have a lenticular or 
belt-like form with the large axis parallel to the general structural 
trend and have thus been influenced to some extent, though they 
were perhaps squeezed out somewhat while still molten. In general, 
the ligneous masses serve as a buttress, against which the thrusts that 
fold the sedimentaries have little effect. 


Many rocks as found in the field show a capacity for splitting 
along one or more planes. This feature, when well developed, is 
of great advanltage tO' the quarryman and stone dresser and upon 
its existence depends in great measure the availability of stone 
for many commercial uses. There is naturally marked variation in 
the behavior of rocks in regard to parting, not only between the 
different classes — igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic — but 
also among members of the same class, so that each occurrence must 
be separately tested for this structure. 

In the sedimentary class, the direction of easiest parting coin- 
cides usually with the bedding. In the finer mechanical sediments 
like bluestone and shale that have been sorted and deposited by 
water, the structure is often exhibited in great perfection. In this 
case, it may be traced to the presence of platy and elongated par- 
ticles among the constituents, or else to a regular alternation of 
finer and coarser materials parallel with the bedding planes. The 
chemical precipitates, which are mainly represented by limestones, 
show it much less frequently, being often incapable of smooth frac- 
ture, although subdivided by natural seams or joints. For that 
reason limestones are often stronger and more resistant to wear 
than the other sediments, and are specially adapted for crushed stone 
in road-making and concrete. 

The best example of this parting among sedimentary rocks is 
found perhaps in the flagstones which are mostly made of fine- 
grained sandstones that in New York are abundant in the Devonic 
formations. They are locally known as bluestone, though, that 
term is not always expressive of their appearance. Between the 
bedding planes of the sandstones occur closed seams which are in- 
dicated by a slight change of grain and are spoken of by the 
quarrymen as " reeds." According to Dickinson,^ reeding quarries 
are found generally in the fine-grained stone and each locality or 

^ Quarries of Bluestone and Other Sandstones. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 6i, 
p. y-8, 1903. 


quarry has its own characteristic reeds. Berkey^ states from 
observation of the bluestone in the Catskills that the capacity for 
sphtting into slabs depends upon the abundance, arrangement and 
size of the elongated and fibrous grains. The reeds are marked by 
a darker color and finer grain than the body of the rock. The 
structure is partly original and partly arises from changes subse- 
quent to the formation of the bluestone, whereby the fibrous ap- 
pearance has been accentuated. 

The massive igneous rocks, of course, are devoid of any capacity 
for cleavage comparable to that in bedded types. But none the 
less, they oftentimes possess a differential parting which greatly 
facilitates their manipulation in the quarry. Quite commonly the 
parting takes place in two directions at right angles to each other. 
The line along which the stone yields most readily is known as 
the rift; it may lie in any plane, but is more often, perhaps, nearly 
vertical. The direction of the second easiest cleavage is called 
the " grain " or sometimes the " run." Though many quarry stones 
seem to possess only the two lines of smooth fracture, there is 
occasionally a third, along which they may be broken 'with some 
degree of ease and which is known as the " head." This is less 
easily detected than the others, because it approaches the normal 
fracture of the stone. 

Rift and grain are frequently described in works on the quarry 
industries with special reference to the granites. From the in- 
formation given, the impression might be gained that these struc- 
tures are only characteristic of the granites, though such con- 
clusion is by no means warranted. The syenitic rocks of the 
Adirondacks often show a fairly good cleavage in two directions. 
Other examples of rift which may be compared with the same 
structure in granites are to be found' in the crushed but 
massive-appearing anorthosites, such as those quarried in the north- 
ern Adirondacks, near Ausable Forks and Keeseville. This rock 
is almost entirely made up of lime-feldspar (labradorite) though 
some phases contain quite a little pyroxene and garnet. It splits 
readily in two directions so as to be easily dressed into dimension 
stone or paving blocks. The igneous rocks of the gabbro class, in 
which large percentages of pyroxene or amphibole are present, 
seem to lack the structure in anything like the typical development 
of the more acid rocks. 

1 Quality of the Bluestone in the Vicinity of Ashokan Dam. School of 
Mines Quarterly, v. 29, no. 2, p. 156-57. 



The cause of rift in the igneous rocks has been variously ex- 
plained. Some writers have attributed it to a slight foliation pro- 
duced by parallel arrangement of the mica minerals. In such 
cases, it is comparable to the foliation cleavage of the metamorphic 

Fig. 5 Microscopic fractures in anorthosite, parallel to the rift or direction 
of easiest cleavage. The section is nearly pure feldspar, the small grains 
being garnet. Enlarged 25 times 

rocks. Another cause may be found in the regular arrangement 
of the feldspars so as to bring their cleavages into alignment, as 
has been described for a Norwegian syenite. Perhaps the more 
common type of rift, specially in the granites, is that produced 
by the presence of microscopic fracture lines. Tarr, Whittle and 
others have noted many examples in which the cleavage arises 
from very minute hairlike fractures, individually somewhat irregu- 
lar and discontinuous, but in general holding their direction un- 
changed throughout the rock mass. Such fractures are found in 
both quartz and feldspar. Dale ^ more recently has shown that 
rift may be related t'o minute cavities in the cjuartz, the cavities 
being arranged in parallel sheets which, in some instances, are 
accompanied by parallel fractures. 

Among the metamorphic rocks, a foliated or gneissoid structure 
is usually accompanied by cleavage along the planes of foliation. 

1 U. S. Geol. Survey Bui. 354, p. 42-47, 1908. 


The appearance of foliation is due to the parallel arrangement of 
the prismatic and scaly minerals or to the elongation of the quartz 
and feldspar, accompanied by more or less segregation of the con- 
stituents in alternating bands. Some rocks evidence the effects 
of metamorphism by granulation and recrystallization, without the 
development of any marked foliation. This is true of the light- 
Colored feldspar-quartz gneisses and of the purer feldspar anortho- 
sites that are common in the Adirondacks. These rocks, when 
crushed, present a massive appearance and have a smooth fracture 
in two or more directions, instead of a single cleavage, like the 
typical gneisses. . 


Chemical composition. The determination of chemical com- 
position may afford much information as to the availatjility of rocks 
for different purposes. Its service in many cases, however, may 
be said to be rather of negative value, as determining the presence 
or absence of certain harmful constituents and as a test for the 
relative decomposition which a rock has undergone under surface 
weathering. The analysis is of most value when used in connection 
with the results of microscopic study. 

Limestones are employed in large quantities by chemical and 
metallurgical establishments, and here an analysis is the first con- 
sideration. For some uses a magnesian limestone may be preferred ; 
for others a high calcium variety is wanted; but nearly always the 
demand requires a limestone with low percentage of impurities 
in the form of silica, alumina and iron. For Portland cement 
manufacture the presence of the first two ingredients is rather an 
advantage, as they take the place of so much clay or shale. For 
building or engineering work, the analysis plays little part in 
deciding upon a suitable stone. 

With sandstones the chemical analysis is useful mainly as a guide 
to the character of the cementing substance, since the sand grains 
themselves are chiefly quartz. Feldspathic sandstones, which are 
indicated by the presence of alumina, lime and alkalies, are less 
durable than the pure quartz kinds, but ordinarily good enough for 
most construction work. In the case of the igneous rocks, chemical 
composition has some practical significance, though its place can 
be supplied often by a careful study of the constituent minerals 
as usually carried out with thin sections under the microscope. 


The percentage of silica determines whether the rock is to be classed 
with the acid (over 65 per cent SiOo), intermediate (55-65 per 
cent), OT basic (below 55 per cent) groups. In the first group free 
quartz, which is the most resistant of all minerals to alteration and 
one of the strongest, is present in quantity. All granites belong 
to that group. The intermediate group consists mainly of syenites 
and diorites in which potash and lime-soda feldspars are the main 
ingredients. These show a higher resistance to physical disintegra- 
tion than granite, but they are perhaps a little more open to chemical 
alteration. In this group may be classed also the anorthosites wM'ch 
are made up of lime feldspar and subordinate pyroxene and which 
are usually classed wnth the gabbros in the basic division For 
all practical purposes they can be considered as equivalent to the 
syenites. The basic group is represented by the gabbros, pyrox- 
enites, hornblendites and diabases among the more common rocks. 
They have high percentages of the basic or lime feldspar and of 
the iron-magnesian minerals, especially pyroxene and hornblende 
and frequently olivine. They are exceedingly tough, unyielding 
rocks when fresh and eminently suited for crushed stone, but are 
too somber in color for most construction purposes. They weather 
rather rapidly through chemical decomposition with the produ<Aion 
of hydrated silicates and oxides, such as 'serpentine, talc and 

The metamorphic rocks are chemically allied to the igneous or 
sedimentary types from which they have been derived. 

The presence of sulphides in any building or ornamental stone 
is undesirable. They are indicated chemically by the percentage 
of sulphur dioxide in the analysis. Pyrite and marcasite, the 
common sulphides in rocks, break down readily in the atmosphere 
to iron oxides which cause unsightly stains upon the surface, though 
not ordinarily weakening the structure of the rock itself. 

The percentages of carbon dioxide and water in igneous rocks 
afford valuable criteria as to their relative freshness. Carbon 
dioxide indicates the presence of calcite which results from the 
decomposition of feldspar and some of the other silicate minerals. 
Water in amount above a small percentage is also traceable to 
secondary products like kaolin, talc and serpentine. 

Mineral composition. According to their relative importance, 
the rock-forming minerals may be divided into (o) essential 
ingredients and (b) nonessential or accessory ingredients. The 
former constitutes the bulk of rock masses, commonly all but a 


few per cents of the whole ; and includes all those that have any 
considerable influence upon the physical properties and fitness of 
the materials for economic uses. There are a few exceptions to be 
made with reference especially to the iron oxides and iron sulphides 
which occur in small amounts, but yet are important, the former 
as coloring agents and the latter owing to their tendency to de- 
compose in the atmosphere and cause unsightly stains. 

The various representatives of the igneous rocks are combina- 
tions of a small number of essential minerals. A list of the more 
important minerals includes cjuartz, feldspar, mica, amphibole, py- 
roxene and olivine. If to these be added nephelite, soda'lite. and 
leucite, w'hich occur in certain areally restricted but not altogether 
rare types, the list of essential ingredients for the igneous class 
is complete. 

It may be noted that all the minerals named contain silica. Quartz 
is silica alone, while the others are compounds known as silicates 
in which silica functions as an acid and combines with some of the 
basic elements like sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron 
and aluminum, to name the more common ones. Several of the 
minerals, namely, feldspar, mica, pyroxene and amphibole, are not 
single species, but mineral groups with a number of individual 
species possessing similar but not identical chemical and mineralog- 
ical properties. 

-The strength and durability of the igneous rocks in ordinary 
service conditioned by the nature of the constituent minerals 
and the manner in which they occur. The harder and more durable 
ingredients are c[uartz and' feldspar, consequently the rDcks that 
are made up of them in larger part are the most serviceable under 
•equal conditions. Quartz is not subject to chemical decomposition, 
but feldspar yields slightly to atmospheric agencies a:nd in the 
course of time may become softened so as to crumble under pres- 
siire. The iron-bearing' silicates which are represented by mica, 
aniphibole, pyroxene aiid olivine are also subject to change under 
the weather, with the result that the iron is partly discharged from 
combination aS' limonite, and new combinations of silica character- 
ized' by the presence of water in considerable amount are formed. 
Chlorite, serpentine and talc are common secondary minerals result- 
,iog:from their alteration. It may be noted that while such changes 
have taken place in nature on a great scale, the element of time 
has been a factor for which no equivalent can be found within 
! the. limits of human experience. As a matter of fact, almost any 


mineral com'bination among the igneous rocks, provided the in- 
gredients are not already in weathered condition, is durable enough 
to serve the purpose of ordinary building construction. There is 
little choice, so far as mineral composition is concerned, to be made 
between a granite, a syenite or a gabbro. From the standpoiinits of 
toughness and resistance to abrasion, which are important qualities 
for concrete and road materials, the syenites and the more basic 
rocks are likely to prove superior to the granite. 

The sedimentary rocks may be classified by their mineral content 
into (a) arenaceous materials represented by sandstones and con- 
glomerates, (&) argi'llaceous materials or clays and shales, and (c) 
calcareous materials or limestones. They have a simpler mineral 
composiiti'on than the igneous types. Sandstones are composed of 
granular quartz held together by some cementing substance. This 
may be a secondary deposit of quartz, in which case the rock is called 
quartzite ; or one of the iron minerals, like limonite or hematite. 
The argillaceous members consist of very finely divided clayey sub- 
stances with more or less quartz, calcite, iron ores, etc. They are 
too soft for constructional stone, but under metamorphism yield 
slates, schists and gneisses. The limestones consist of the mineral 
calcite alone, or calcite admixed with dolomite, in the latter case 
being called magnesian or dolomitic limestones. 

Between the groups of limestones and sandstones as a whole, 
there is no comparison possible with regard to durable qualities. 
If the nature of the respective components (calcite and quartz) 
alone were to be considered, sandstone would be far superior, but 
there are other factors entering into the question. The size of 
the constituent particles, the porosity, and the character of the 
cementing substance, if any, need to be taken into account. 

With sandstones, the character of the cementing substance is 
more important than any other feature. Some contain very little 
cement, being held together by the surface adhesion of the particles 
when brought into close contact. These are apt to be friable and 
little resistant to physical disintegration. Calcite is a common 
cement, but rather inferior, since it seems to lose its attachment 
to the quartz with weathering, and the rock becomes a sugary 
aggregate. Iron oxide in the form of hematite forms a durable 
binder and provides an attractive color. 

The highest grade sandstones in respect to hardness, toughness 
and permanency are those in which the grains are bound together 
by quartz. Such types are called quartzites and are exemplified by 


many occurrences of the Potsdam sandstone in this State. When 
the secondary quartz is united with the grains to build them out 
into interlocking crystals, as sometimes happens, the material is 
the most durable of all constructional stones. 

Limestones are made up mainly of the calcareous skeletons of 
organisms, though often so finely comminuted as to be unrecogniz- 
aible to the unaided eye. There is also more or less of secondary 
calcite, derived by solution and redeposition of the lime, which 
serves to fill up the interstices and the interiors of the organic 
remains. The calcite shows crystalline character, but is not so 
uniformly developed in rhombic particles as in the case of marbles. 
Besides calcite, the double carbonate of lime and magnesia, or 
dolomite, may be present in similar form. Through its increasing 
participation, the magnesia may replace the lime up to 20 per cent 
or so. 

Though calcite is quite soluble in rain water and groundwaters 
which contain carbon dioxide, limestones, when compact and well 
cemented, are sufficiently durable in the mass to withstand all 
ordinary conditions of exposure. The purer varieties are the best. 
The presence of argillaceous and siliceous impurities tends to 
weaken their structure, as there is not the same bond between 
particles of different nature as exists between the uniform calcare- 
ous grains. 

The metamorphic rocks require no special mention. In their 
mineralogy, they are related to the one or the other of these classes. 
Metamorphism ordinarily produces small changes in the igneous 
rocks so far as their mineral ingredients are concerned. With 
the sediments it tends toward recrystallization of the ingredients, 
thus making them more compact or harder than the originals, with 
an approach, in the case of the siliceous sediments, to the struc- 
tures and mineral contents of the igneous class. 

Texture. There is no doubt that texture (by which is meant 
the size, form and spacing of the mineral particles) plays an im- 
portant role in the strength and durability of rocks. The relation- 
ship, however, is not always so distinct or easily grasped as might 
be inferred from the treatment given in some works on quarry 
materials. As a rule, each quarry presents features that require 
individual study, not alone by themselves, but with reference to 
the geological history and mineral content of the material. 

The size of grain obviously affects the appearance and physical 
qualities of rocks. It is not (contrary to the opinions frequently 
expressed) an index of their porosity or resistance to weathering 


influences. Tests show that a fine-grained granite may be as porous 
as a coarse-grained one, which is also true of a sandstone. There 
is usually a difference in the size of the' pores, which are larger 
but less numerous in the coarser stones ; consec[uently, it may be 
said that these will usually absorb moisture more readily and on 
the other hand dry out more quickly than similar rocks composed 
of particles in a fine state of division. Whether they weather more 
or less rapidly than their fine-grained equivalents, depends upon 
other factors such as the state of aggregation and relative spacing of 
the particles and the character of the climate. 

Experiments with the St Lawrence and Jefferson county granites 
indicate that the coarser grades, which contain feldspars up to an 
inch in diameter, are as closely textured as the fine sorts. There 
is also no appreciable difference in the two kinds with regard to 
weathering, so far as can be estimated from the condition of the 
rocks in natural exposures. 

Crystalline rocks which have consolidated at depths show little 
porosity, and the variations between different examples are often 
too slight to have significance for practical purposes. Any marked 
departure from the average is traceable to external influences in 
the way of chemical or mechanical disintegration and should be an 
occasion for careful investigation. 

The fragmental rocks like sandstone and grits are apt to have 
more pore space. But a degree of porosity above the average is 
indicative of imperfect cementation. It denotes, therefore, pervi- 
ousness to moisture, as well as inferior strength through lack of 
bond. Limestones and marbles may be quite as impervious as the 
igneous rocks. Porosity in their case may arise from solution by 
the seepage of underground waters, forming cavities which weaken 
their structure and not infrequently contain secondary deposits 
of iron sulphides. 

Apart from these considerations, the size of grain seems to bear 
some relation to the strength of certain rocks. This has been 
noted by Julien/ who instances the minutely crystalline limestones 
as examples which may show surprising resistance to crushing ; in 
a limestone from Lake Champlain the ultimate strength reached 
25,000 pounds to the square inch. The explanation for the superior 
strength of such rocks, as given by that writer, is that the molecular 
cohesion between the grains, under equal conditions, is proportion- 

1 Building Stones — Elements of Strength in their Constitution and Struc- 
ture. Journal of the Franklin Institute, v. 147. April 1899. 


ate to their fineness. The apparent exceptions to this relation of 
grain to strength are numerous, but they are possibly accounted for 
by variations of interlockment and cementation between the par- 

An important element in the strength of some rocks is con- 
tributed by the interlockment of the particles, an arrangement 
which acts upon the general structure like hair in a mortar. This 
is exemplified best of all by the diabases in which the feldspar in 
lathlike crystals is embedded in a matrix of pyroxene, olivine and 
magnetite, so as to exert the utmost resistance to both tension and 
compression. A similar effect may be produced by prismatic horn- 
blende and pyroxene crystals in the syenites and gabbros or by 
the mica scales in granites. A dovetailing of the mineral particles 
contributes to the strength of some marbles and granites. The 
grains have irregular or indented outlines instead of smooth, 
rounded borders and are molded upon each other in the closest 
form of interlockment. 

A uniformity of texture with the minerals spaced after a regular 
pattern is an advantage both from the standpoints of appearance 
and of weathering qualities. It is essential for rocks that are to 
be subjected to abrasion and wear. 

Color. Little significance attaches to color as a guide to the 
intrinsic merits of building stone. Within narrow limits it may 
indicate something in regard to the relative state of weathering but 
a change of color such as may be brought about by oxidation of 
iron or 'bleaching of carbon compounds on exposure to the air does 
not necessarily mean a deterioration in strength. From commercial 
considerations, however, color ranks among the very important 
qualities and has much to do with the favor which a stone wins in 
the market. This is especially true of architectural stone for use 
in our larger cities. There is a certain prevailing taste apparent 
in the selection of stone with reference to color which finds illustra- 
tion in city architecture of different periods. At present, the 
taste seems to incline toward the very lightest colors, white or 
light gray, often to the exclusion of shades which are much better 
adapted for service in the surroundings. The employment of white 
marbles and very light granites for structures in manufacturing 
districts or for railroad stations seems inappropriate as it is un- 

The colors found in rocks are too varied to be individually dis- 
cussed or explained. It may be said that the principal coloring 
agents are iron and carbon, the former for the igneous class and 


the two together in sedimentary rocks. Iron occurs in chemical 
combination chiefly in the sihcate minerals like biotite, hornblende, 
augite and olivine, lending various shades of green or a black color 
to these ingredients of the crystalline rocks. It also occurs in the 
form of free oxides, sulphides and carbonate distributed through 
the body of the rock. The yellow, brown and reddish tints are 
mainly due to the oxides of iron, blue and gray to the carbonate. 
Carbon occurs in finely divided particles which lend a black or 
bluish color to certain limestones, marbles and slates. 

The presence of iron in a condition of incomplete oxidation, as 
ferrous oxide or carbonate, or as a sulphide, is detrimental to build- 
ing or ornamental stones. The original colors incident to their 
presence will not prove permanent. In some classes of material, 
the change which takes place by oxidation of these compounds 
produces a desirable mellowing effect, as in the Hudson River 
sandstones, but ordinarily it leads to red or yellow blotches. The 
colors resulting from the oxidation of pyrite and marcasite are 
also apt to run, forming streaks which extend outward from the 
particles and are quite frequently seen in exposed walls. Some 
measure of the permanancy of color in building materials may be 
had by a chemical analysis giving the percentages of unoxidized 
iron. Allowance should be made for the nature of the compound, 
for the mineral magnetite which contains both ferrous and ferrtic 
iron is more stable under atmospheric weathering than a ferrous 
compound like the carbonate. In fact magnetite is extremely re- 
sistant to change and its occurrence can not be held as a draw- 
back to the use of any stone. 

Besides the change of color that takes place in building stones 
through the relatively slow alteration of the components as noted, 
there are well-known instances where changes occur almost im- 
mediately on removal of the stone from the quarry. The nature of 
this change is not fully understood, but it seems to be connected 
in some cases with the loss of the quarry moisture or sap. As a 
local example may be cited some of the occurrences of the Adiron- 
dack green syenite which have a lively light to dark green color 
on fresh surfaces but which change within a few days to a yellow 
or muddy green. The change is unaccompanied by any discernible 
effect with respect to the mineral ingredients, and, though it seems 
to be connected with the loss of moisture, the original tint can not 
be restored by long-continued immersion in water. 

The appearance of stone in a building can not be summed up 
entirely under color. Some kinds have a bright, clean look which 


others of similar color lack. There is a strong contrast in that 
respect between Gouverneur marble, for example, and a noncrystal- 
line granular limestone. The nature of the surface exposed to view 
also must be taken into account; in the darker stones, a marked 
difference usually exists between the rock face and the hammered 
surfaces, the latter being much lighter. The appearance of a stone 
in a small sample may fail to give the actual effect when seen at 
some distance in the walls of a building. 

The granites and related silicate rocks ordinarily change very 
little, even on long exposure to the weather. Their coloration is 
lent by the inherent colors of the various minerals, rather than by 
the presence of some accidental ingredient diffused through the 
jnass. In consequence of their usually complex mineral composition, 
they appear mottled or speckled on close view and only assume uni- 
form tints when viewed from a distance. The coarser the texture, 
the greater is the distance required to produce blending. Among the 
ingredients of igneous rocks, quartz exercises little part in the 
coloration, itself being colorless or at most grayish or whitish. 
Feldspar is the minenal ;to which the granites, syenites' and amoritho- 
sites owe their characteristic colors. In the granites, it is mainly 
white, cream or light pink, but is sometimes deep red. Its effect 
is toned down by the darker minerals, so that the brilliant white or 
red becomes gray or dark red in the body of the rock. The feldspar 
in syenite may be pink or gray, but is not infrequently blue or 
green. The feldspar (labradorite) of anorthosite has a dark green 
to almost black color in fresh condition, but shows nearly white 
when crushed and subjected to slight alteration. In the diorites, 
gahbros and diabases, the dark silicates, like biotite, amphibole and 
pyroxene, share importance with the feldspar and consequently 
these rocks possess rather somber tones. ' 

Strength, The resistance which rocks offer to stress when ap- 
plied to their surface varies much with the class and type. It 
depends upon many different factors which are mainly related to 
the mineral composition and texture, but which are also influenced 
by external conditions. Some of the relations between the physical 
characters of rocks, particularly textures, and strength have already 
been mentioned. 

The igneous rocks as a class are distinguished from the other 
rocks by the fact that their strength is uniform, irrespective of the 
direction in which the stress may be applied. This depends, of 
course, uipon their homogeneous composition and texture. In the 
sedimentary and metamorphic classes, the planes of bedding or 


schistosity mark a weakened cohesion between the constituents 
which may lead to a very considerable variation in their strength, 
according as the latter is tested parallel with or normal to those 
planes. Variations of strength do occur in the igneous rocks, 
notably such as possess rift and grain structures, but to a minor 
degree as compared with the other classes. 

Mineral composition affects the strength of rocks, though in 
general it is less important than the features connected with texture. 
Such a weak material as serpentine shows surprising compressive 
and tensile strengths when the (fibers of which it is composed are 
thoroughly interwoven. Marbles and limestones of nearly uniform 
composition exhibit a wide variation in tests with variations of 
grain and compactness of texture. On the other hand, the presence 
of hard' resistant minerals like quartz, hornblende and pyroxene no 
doubt contribute to the strength of certain igneous rocks. 

The resistance of the stone to stress n"cessarily differs with the 
method of application, and the behavior of a sample under com- 
pression, which is the usual method of testing strength, does not 
afford any valuable information as to the resistance the stone will 
offer to tensile or bending stresses. This fact is very well brought 
out by the cracking of arches and lintels under transverse strains, 
whereas the same forces applied in compression have little or no 

The strength of stone is often injured by lack of proper care in 
quarrying. Stone that has been blasted from the ledge by dynamite 
or powder can not be expected to exhibit the same strength as that 
quarried with the use of the drill and wedges. Even if there are 
no visible cracks or checks, it will be found that the blasting has 
worked damage to the texture by loosening the bond between the 

Other conditions which affect strength are the weathering and 
drying out of the stone after removal from the quarry. Some 
soft sandstones show a remarkable gain in strength when exposed 
to the sun's heat and the consequent evaporation of the quarry sap. 
When saturated again, they lose some of this acquired strength, 
but are still more resistant than the freshly quarried rock ; exposure 
to a wide range of temperature is, however, detrimental to any 


The availability of any stone for commercial use depends first 
of all upon the features connected with its field occurrence. Geo- 
logical observations are necessary to determine the quantity of 


material that can be readily quarried ; the physical conditions affect- 
ing the course and economy of quarry work ; and the general char- 
acter of the stone with regard to color, texture and the larger 
structural variations incident to inclusions, segregations, dikes and 
veins. Even liberal samples collected with a great deal of care fail 
to convey the same information respecting the general features 
of the stone that is gained by an inspection of the exposure or 
quarry pit itself. 

The next consideration is to establish the physical properties 
of the stone so as to be able to forecast with some certainty its 
relative fitness for the special service that may be demanded of it. 
This information is afforded by mineralogical and chemical investi- 
gations supplemented by physical tests along the line of those 
adopted for estimating the strength and durability of other struc- 
tural materials. Furthermore, a comparative study of the behavior 
of different quarry stones under conditions of actual service will 
be helpful in applying the results obtained by laboratory experi- 
mentation. In fact, physical tests alone may lead to erroneous 
conclusions as to the relative value of samples, and the guidance 
.obtainable by observations of materials of similar nature in actual 
service is highly essential in forming an estimasbe. 


The field relations of quarry stones may be said to comprehend 
practically the whole range of variations of rock occurrence. Their 
interpretation requires a broad knowledge of the origin and struc- 
ture of rocks and the modifications produced by surface agencies 
which can hardly be presented here. Such knowledge is in part to 
be found in any standard work on geology and in part rests upon 
personal experience gained by study in the field. Only a few gen- 
eral matters will be given attention here. 

The granites and related igneous rocks ordinarily occur in large 
bodies and are continuous for indefinite distances into the earth. 
The question of quantity of material is not so important, therefore, 
as the situation with respect to ease of quarrying. The most ad- 
vantageous situation for cjuarry work is along the side of a hill, 
as it facilitates the handling of the stone and secures natural drain- 
age. The direction and frequency of joints exert much influence 
upon the relative ease of obtaining blocks and also determine 
whether stone of size for building and monumental work can be 
had. A rift and grain structure is necessary if the stone is to be 
used for dimension work or paving blocks. 


Variations in the character of the igneous rocks are produced 
by pegmatitic and aphtic segregations and dikes, by quartz veins, 
and by inchisions of foreign materials that have been involved in 
the mass during its progress toward the surface. These are detri- 
mental to uniformity of the product, or may necessitate the dis- 
carding of much material in the quarry work. They are not so 
important in case the stone is to be used for engineering work in 
which appearance is a minor consideration. 

With the sedimentary rocks, the dip or inclination of the beds 
is a matter of importance.. With ordinary quarry materials exploita- 
tion under cover is impracticable on account of the cost, though 
it may be adopted in the case of marble or slate. The thickness 
and succession of the beds, the presence of shale partings, varia- 
tions of texture and color, and the spacing of the joints are features 
to be noted. When the beds lie nearly flat and their edges are not 
exposed in nearby stream valleys, it may be necessary to prospect 
the beds by test holes. For that purpose, a diamond or shot drill 
is used and the cost of securing cores by such method may be 
expected to amount to several dollars a foot ; ordinarily, only shal- 
low holes are necessary, but the expense is proportionately large 
on account of frequency of moving and setting up the drill. 

The sedimentary rocks, unless broken and faulted by dynamic 
agencies, may be expected to extend over wide areas. It is not 
safe, however, to rely on the continuity of individual layers for 
any considerable distance without evidence in the matter. In the 
clastic rocks like sandstones, especially, the character of the beds 
may change quite rapidly, or the layers may wedge out to be suc- 
ceeded by others of different color or texture. This feature is well 
illustrated by the Medina sandstones which are subject to rapid 
variations along the strike, the heavy and valuable beds becoming 
thin or shaly within short distances, though on the dip they are 
apparently more persistent. The use of the core drill will often 
effect a large saving in the development work of quarry properties. 

The value of observations in the field as to the durability or 
weathering qualities of stone is not of much consequence. At most, 
they can be used only to compare the relative resistance of different 
materials when exposed to similar conditions. That the conditions 
depend much upon the topography and the character of the soil 
covering appears very evident and the variations in these respects 
may overbalance the factors inherent in the stones themselves. 
Thus the evidences of weathering are more apparent in valley 
bottoms where the process of decomposition and disintegration is 


cumulative in its effects than upon a hill where the products are 
removed nearly as rapidly as they are formed. In a glaciated 
country like this State, the presence or absence of bowlder clay is 
an important feature in determining the effects of weathering. 
When that material rests directly upon rock, the latter is always 
much fresher in appearance than when covered with sand or soil. 
It is now quite generally conceded that no reliable estimate can 
be made from the weathering qualities of rock in place as to its 
probable permanency when placed in the walls of a building. That 
conclusion was reached in the course of an investigation carried out 
a few years ago by a commission appointed by the Prussian govern- 
ment. The report of the commission, as quoted from Parks' 
Building and Ornamental Stone of Canada,^ stated that: 

1 The alterations produced in stone by the agents acting in 
the crust of the earth are not comparable with those caused by 
the action of the atmosphere on stone placed in a building. 

2 Changes are produced in the course of the geological ages 
which can not possibly be effected in the length of time that a 

building stands. 

3 The obtaining of a measure of the time necessary for dis- 
tinct alteration to appear in a building stone and for the time 
required for the alteration to proceed through different stages 
is not assisted at all by observations on geological weathering. 


The microscope beyond all doubt is the most valuable single ad- 
junct for the laboratory investigation of structural stone. There 
is no other method that at once yields so many important facts and 
with so little outlay of time or expenditure for equipment. 

The information which may be had from the examination of 
rock samples with the microscope include,: (i) the identity of the 
various mineral ingredients, from those of macroscopic size down 
to the finest particles : sulphides, carbonates and any other harmful 
components are quickly revealed; (2) the size, form, interlockment 
or cementation of the grains; (3) the compactness of the rock, or 
its relative porosity ; (4) the condition of the minerals with respect 
to weathering; (5) the relative proportion of the different minerals. 
As minerals are definite chemical compounds, the determination of 
the relative abundance of each variety affords a measure for reckon- 
ing the quantitative chemical composition. The results are not so 
accurate as those obtained by actual chemical analysis, but in ex- 

1 Department of Mines, Ottawa, v. i, p. 57. 1912. 


perienced hands the method can be made to give the essential 
features with sufficient accuracy for all practical purposes. 

The microscope used for rock examination is of special con- 
struction, differing from the ordinary instrument chiefly in the use 
of polarized light which is secured by two Nicol prisms, one of 
which is placed below the stage and the other either in the tube or 
above the eyepiece. 

Rock samples for examination under the microscope must be 
reduced to such thinness that they are perfectly transparent. This 
means a thickness of o.i mm or less. The sections are prepared 
from chips an inch or so in diameter that are broken off from 
the rock sample with a small hammer, or better from fiat pieces cut 
with the diamond saw. These are ground smooth on one surface 
with the aid of a lap wheel or glass plate, using emery or car- 
borundum and water for abrasive. When a perfectly flat surface, 
free of scratches, is obtained, this is cemented to the object glass 
with Canada balsam. The other side is then ground down until 
the section is of the required thinness, after which the sample is 
cleaned and a cover glass cemented on it with balsa,m. The 
preparation is permanent and can be filed away for future reference. 

To determine the proportions of the minerals in the section, from 
which determination the chemical composition may be reckoned with 
some degree of accuracy, the method adopted is that first devised 
by Delesse ^ and later perfected by Rosiwal.^ This depends upon 
the principle that the areas occupied by the several minerals in the 
section bear the same relations as the respective volumes of the 
minerals. Delesse made a tracing of the outlines of the minerals, 
gave each species a separate color, and then applied the tracing to 
a sheet of tinfoil. The latter was divided carefully along the 
boundaries of the minerals and the pieces corresponding to each 
species were separately weighed. The result gave the proportions 
of the several ingredients. The Rosiwal modification consists of 
tracing on the cover glass a network of lines equally spaced and 
intersecting each other at right angles. The ratio of the total length 
of the lines to the sum of the intercepts of the mineral particles on 
the lines is approximately the ratio of the total surface to the area 
occupied by each mineral. The accuracy of the method, according 

1 Delesse, M. A. Precede mecanique pour determiner la composition des 
roches. Paris, 1862. 

2 Rosiwal, August. Ueber geometrische Gesteinsanalysen, Verhandlungen 
der K. K. geologischen Reichsanstalt zu Wien. v. 32, p. 143-75- 


to Rosiwal, is indirectly proportional to the average size of grain 
of the rock and directly to the length of the selected system of lines. 

A further improvement of this method has been recently de- 
scribed by Hirschwald.^ It consists of a microscopic eyepiece in 
the focus of which are placed two glass plates, one ruled with 
a set of ordinates and the other with abscissas, the latter plate being 
movable along the edge of the first by means of a screw turned 
with the fingers. The microscope, when focused upon the section, 
shows the two scales superposed upon the surface ; the movable or 
horizontal scale is used to measure the intercepts of the mineral 
particles. By readjusting the movable scale, the measurement may 
be repeated until the area of view is covered. It is recommended 
by Hirschwald that the measurements be taken at such intervals 
as to cover the average grains by two or three readings, the number 
depending on the size of the particles. 

The microscopic method of approximating the chemical compo- 
sition is considered by Hirschwald to be preferable to chemical 
analysis in some instances. Such is the case with sandstones that 
contain deooimposable ingredients and those of hard siliceous nature, 
and it serves equally well to determine the amount of cement. 

There is need of much care in selecting the samples for micro- 
scopic examination to insure that they represent a fair average of 
the rock. It is also unsafe to depend on the evidence obtained 
from a single section. As the area of a section is usually less than 
a scjuare inch, the minerals may not be present in it in the same 
proportion as in the rock mass, especially if the grain be coarse. 
Inaccurate results are often much worse than none, as illustrated by 
the misinformation that is often circulated by quarry owners and 
which sometimes originates from supposedly reliable sources. 


The making of a complete chemical analysis of a rock is a labor- 
ious operation that requires special equipment and much chemical 
knowledge and experience. It is also expensive. For ordinary 
practical purposes, and when the stone is not limestone or quartzite 
for use in metallurgy or chemical manufacture, such analysis is 
not required. 

In the case of igneous rocks, it is quite important to determine 
the water, carbon dioxide and sulphur. The water and carbon 

1 Hirschwald, J. Handbuch der Bautechnischen Gesteinspriifung, Berlin, 
1912, p. 146-47, 167-72. 


dioxide afford a measure of the freshness of the rock, but should 
be supplemented by microscopic study. The sulphur establishes 
the relative proportions of the sulphides — pyrite, marcasite or 

The presence of carbonates in igneous rocks can be quickly 
determined by powdering a little of the sample and treating with 
very dilute hydrochloric acid or equal amounts of acetic acid and 
water. If carbonates are present, bubbles will form around the 
powder and gradually rise to the surface. 


The laboratory testing of stone is an. attempt to ascertain the 
resistance which the material will offer to the various stresses that 
arise in engineering and architectural structures. The practice 
has but recently come into favor in this country, but it has been 
followed abroad for a longer time. The general interest now taken 
in the subject may be ascribed largely to the initiative of the 
engineering staff's connected with highway and other public 

One of the first reports on quarry materials to give attention to 
their physical testing and to embody a fairly comprehensive series of 
results is Smock's " Building Stone in New York." ^ The data of 
the tests relate to specific gravity, absorption, the action of acids, 
change of temperature and the influence of heat. 

It is well to note that the capacity of a rock to resist the many 
variations of strain can not be estimated by any single physical 
test. Crushing strength alone means little as to the quality of stone 
for use in street work or its probable behavior when placed in an 
arch. Moreover, physical tests of any kind do not fill the place 
of microscopic investigation of the mineral association aild textures 
of rocks and their full value is attained only when they are com- 
bined with the results of study into all the general properties of the 

Thp most comprehensive work on the subject of testing of stone 
undoubtedly is Hirschwald's " Handbuch der Bautechnischen 
Gesteinspriifung," which has already been referred to. The work 
is a scientific exposition of the subject based on actual results ob- 
tained by the use of various physical, chemical and microscopic 
methods of investigation. The volume was issued in 1912 so that 

1 N. Y. State Museum Bui. 10. 1890. 


it can be said to represent the most modern practice, with special 
reference, of course, to German and continental methods. 

The different physical tests are designed to yield information 
as to the following properties : specific gravity and weight ; porosity ; 
absorption ; hardness and toughness ; strength under compressive, 
transverse, tensile and shearing stresses ; wear or abrasion ; resist- 
ance to fire; and durability when exposed to frost, changes of tem- 
perature and other weathering influences. These will be briefly 
discussed in their order. 

Specific gravity and weight. The specific gravity of any ma.terial 
is its weight compared with an equal volume of pure water. In 
the case of solid bodies like rocks that are insoluble in water, the 
determination is carried out by weighing the samples in air and 
then finding their weight when suspended in distilled water. The 
weight in air divided by the loss of weight in water is the specific 
gravity. The matter, however, is not quite so simple, owing to the 
fact that rocks are more or less porous and there is some trouble in 
securing moisture-free samples for the first weighing ^and complete 
saturation of the samples for the second. This can be accomplished, 
however, in the following manner : samples of cubical shape, weigh- 
ing ajt least 40 or 50 gramms, are heated in an air bath at 110° C. 
until they show no further loss of moisture, when they are placed in 
a desiccator and allowed to cool. After weighing, they are immersed 
in distilled water which at first may be boiled to hasten the expul- 
sion of air. They should be maintained under water for a period 
of from three to four days, when they will have reached a con- 
dition of practically complete saturation. They are then removed 
from the bath, their outer surfaces rapidly dried with blotting paper 
and then weighed. It will be found that determinations made in 
this way are fairly accurate, and there is less opportunity for error 
through faulty manipulation than by determining the gravity with 
the use of a picnometer or specific gravity bottle. It gains a 
further advantage in that the same samples and weights are useful 
in finding the porosity. 

The weight of stone per cubic foot is usually determined by multi- 
plying the specific gravity into the weight of a cubic foot of water, 
which is 62.4 pounds. This is sufficiently accurate for the closely 
textured rocks, but with porous sandstones a deduction must be 
made equivalent to the weight of the same rock required to fill 
the pore space. A more direct method is to weigh a cubic or rec- 


tangular piece of the rock of known volume after drying to constant 
weight. From that result, the weight per cubic foot is readily 

Porosity. The determination of porosity is one of the most im- 
portant physical tests. The pores of rocks admit moisture, and its 
expansion on freezing exerts such pressure as may lead to disrup- 
tion of the material. The scaling of some sandstones when exposed 
to frost action is very noticeable. Furthermore, under equal con- 
ditions porosity afifords some indication as to the resistance stones 
will ofifer to the solvent action of waters and vapors and to the 
penetration of smoke, dust and other discoloring agencies. It has 
been held by some writers that th^i porosity is an absolute measure 
of the durability of stone; but chis is an overstatement of the 
matter, since the size of the pores and their relations to each other, 
that is, whether isolated or connected by capillary channels, has as 
much, if not more, influence than the absolute porosity. 

The total pore space or porosity is readily calculated from the 
determinations for specific gravity, according to the method already 
described. The difiference between the weights of the samples dry 
and saturated gives the amount of water absorbed in the pores. By 
multiplying this quantity by the specific gravity, we obtain an ex- 
pression for the weight of rock required to fill the vacant pore 
space. This, added to the dry weight, gives the total weight the 
sample would have if there were no pore space. If the weight of 
rock required to fill the pores is then divided by the latter and the 
result multiplied by 100, we have the porosity expressed in per- 
centage of the volume of the sample. This method devised by 
Buckley has been commonly followed in the reports on American 
building stones. It has been used in the determinations made in 
connection with the present report. 

German testing laboratories measure the porosity somewhat 
dififerently by determining the specific gravity of the powdered rock 
and the so-called " Raumgewicht " or density of the stone inclusive 
of pores. The latter is found by dividing the weight of the sample 
expressed in grams by the volume in cubic centimeters. The 
difiference of the two values divided by the specific gravity and the 
result multiplied by 100 gives what is called the coefficient of 

1 Consult Hirschwald, " Handbuch der bautechnischen Gesteinspriifung," 
p. 109-10. 



Absorption. The absorption of a rock is the ratio between the 
weight of the absorbed water and the dry weight of the sample. It 
is determinable, therefore, from the same measurements that are 
used in finding the porosity. The weight of the absorbed water is 
divided by the weight of the dry stone; the result multiplied by lOO 
gives absorption as a percentage of the mass. The relation between 
porosity and absorption varies with the specific gravity of the stone, 
but the latter commonly amounts to about one-half of the former. 

The ratio of absorption, any more than the porosity, does not 
afiford an absolute index of the permeability of stone to water. 
Parks ^ has conducted an interesting experiment to test the perme- 
ability in samples having different porosities. Samples of rock 3 mm 
thick were cut at right angles to the bedding planes. Through these 
pieces water was forced under pressure of 15 pounds to the square 
inch and the amount of flow in one hour recorded. It was found 
that stones having less than i per cent of pore space were prac- 
tically impermeable to water under that pressure. The results on 
some sedimentary rocks are as follows : 




Guelph limestone 

Guelph limestone 

Chazy lime'stone 

Medina sandstone 

Niagara limestone 

Beekmantcwn limestone 
Potsdam sandstone 

IS. 883 

90. S 

Hardness and toughness. Hardness is a property of homo- 
geneous materials like minerals by which they resist penetration. It 
lacks the same degree of definiteness when applied to rocks which 
are composed of various minerals and perhaps held together by 
some cementing substance of still different nature. In such condi- 
tions, it may be regarded as the resultant of the hardness of the 
various ingredients plus the bond betv/een them. 

There is no uniformity in the practice of determining hardness, 
which is an important feature of materials to be used in paving and 
street work generally. One method follows that in use for compar- 
ing the hardness of minerals and is based on the rate of penetration 

1 " Building and Ornamental Stones of Canada, Ottawa, 1912," v. i, p. 61-62.. 


of a drill. The common practice in laboratories for the testing of 
roadstoiies is to subject a specimen of definite dimen'sions to the 
abrading action of a grinding disc. The loss of weight after the 
disc has revolved a certain number of times is a measure of the 
hardness. In the laboratories of the State Department of Highways 
at Albany, the test is carried out on a core of rock, i inch in 
diameter and 3 to 4 inches long, obtained with a diamond, drill. 
The ends of the core are faced off and then the latter is weighed. 
One end is placed against a Dorry grinding machine, so as to bear 
with constant pressure upon the disc upon which quartz sand of 
standard quality and size is fed. The disc is revolved 500 revolu- 
tions at the rate of 2000 revolutions an hour, when the core is taken 
out, reversed end for end, and ground for another 500 revolutions. 
The loss in weight in grams is noted. One-third of this loss sub- 
tracted from 20 is the relative hardness. A hardness below 14 
is considered soft, between 14 and 17 medium and above 17 high. 
Toughness may be defined as the resistance to rupture from im- 
pact b}^ a falling body. It differs from hardness in that it depends 
mainly upon the texture of the material, more especially the manner 
in which the components are interlocked. Fibrous aggregates like 
those of talc, serpentine and gypsum, though possessing little hard- 
ness, are very resistant to rupture, as shown by the difficulty in 
pulverizing such materials in a ball mill. Tests for toughness are 
commonly carried out on roadstones, but have less value for build- 
ing materials. The method of testing toughness as adopted in the 
New York State Department of Highways is as follows : 

The toughness test is made by taking two core pieces 
one inch in diameter which have been obtained with the 
diamond drill, as was done for the hardness test. The 
ends of these core pieces are accurately and carefully 
smoothed off so as to form cylinders i inch in height. 
They are then placed on a firm, level bearing in an impact 
machine, securely clamped and subjected to blows through 
a one-kilogram weight. The first blow of the hammer 
is from a height of i centimeter. Each succeeding blow 
is from a height i centimeter greater than the preceding 
one. The number of blows, which equals the drop ex- 
pressed in centimeters of the last blow required to break 
the core, is considered as the toughness of the stone. The 
toughness of the stone is represented by the average of 
the two core pieces broken. A toughness below 13 is 
considered low, between 13 and 19 medium and above 
19 high. 


Strength. The crushing strength is determined by applying a 
gradually increasing pressure upon a cube placed between two steel 
plates until the stone breaks down. It is usual to note also the 
pressure at which the first crack occurs. The value of the results 
depends upon the care used in preparing the cubes, which should 
be sawed, not dressed to size with the hammer, and also upon 
the relation of the faces of the cube to the structure of the stone in 
the quarry. In sedimentary rocks, the pressure should be applied at 
right angles to the bedding. In granites and other igneous rocks 
that have rift and grain, tests should be made upon three samples 
of each rock, so as to find the strength perpendicular respectively 
to the rift, grain and heading. Even with the greatest care in the 
selection of samples and their preparation, the tests will show wide 
variations in the crushing strength of rock from the same quarry. 
Nearly any quarry material, however, has sufficient strength to 
withstand any compressive force that is likely to develop in the 
walls of a building. Buckley states that a stone with a crushing 
strength of 5000 pounds to the square inch is sufficiently strong for 
any ordinary building.^ 

The transverse strength is determined on rectangular pieces which 
are supported at the ends on knife edges and subjected to a pressure 
in the middle from another knife edge. The test has some value for 
stone to be used in arches, lintels, and similar purposes. 

Tensile strength is seldom determined on stone, although com- 
monly tested in cements. It is equally, if not more important, 
however, than the compressive strength, as it measures the bonding 
power and gives some indication as to the behavior of stones under 
the internal stresses of contraction and expansion. Shearing 
strength is measured by the resistance the stone ofifers to forces 
tending to displace the particles with reference to each other. Tests 
for it are rarely made. 

Wear or abrasion. The resistance to wear by abrasion may be 
said to be dependent upon the qualities, of hardness and toughness. 
It is useful to determine such resistance in macadam and paving 
stones. The method employed in the State Department of High- 
ways is to prepare with the aid of a breaking press, cubical samples 
of from i^ to 25^ inches diameter, of which 50 will approximate 
5 kilograms in weight. The pieces are then washed, dried, and 
placed in a cast-iron cylinder, mounted at an angle of 30° with 
the axis of rotation, and revolved for 10,000 revolutions at the rate 

1 Building Stones of Wisconsin, p. 59. 


of 2000 times an hour. The stone is then taken out, washed, dried 
and the weight of material less than one-sixteenth of an inch in size 
computed. The per cent of loss of the original weight is expressed 
by the French coefficient which is obtained by dividing 40 by the 
per cent of wear. Thus a stone which loses .4 per cent in weight 
during the test would show a coefficient of wear of 10. A coefficient 
of wear below 8 is considered low, between 8 and 13 medium, be- 
tween 13 and 20 high and over 20 very high. 

Resistance to fire. The resistance of stone to intense heat may 
be considered one of the important qualities in building stones that 
should be given consideration by the architect and builder, but 
which is very often neglected. Fires in cities work great damage 
upon stone structures. The test of extreme heat followed by sudden 
chilling from the play of water upon the surface is one that very 
few stones will pass through with strength and appearance unim- 
paired. There is, however, considerable variation among different 
building stones in respect to fire resistance, as may be observed in 
their condition after a large conflagration like that of Baltimore or 
San Francisco. Some buildings are completely ruined, so far as 
the possibility of making any use of the stone work for reconstruc- 
tion ; others are only damaged as to their exposed parts like the 
cornices and window openings ; and some appear to be practically 

Intense heat causes both physical and chemical changes in stone. 
The most apparent effect is the spalling and cracking incident to 
unequal expansion between the outer and inner parts of the blocks. 
Stone has a very low capacity for transmitting heat; consequently, 
the interior may be still comparatively cool while the surface is 
intensely hot. This difference in temperature sets up a stress that 
disrupts the stone or causes the outer part to flake off in successive 
layers. The same process takes place in nature where changes of 
temperature are extreme ; in the arid regions like the Great Basin, 
the warmth of the sun after a cool night causes the scaling of bare 
rock surfaces, but of course at a comparatively slow rate. 

The disruption of rocks of complex mineral composition, such 
as granite, is probably traceable to some extent to the loosening of 
the bond between the ingredients through intergranular strain. 
Quartz, feldspar and mica each has its own rate of expansion which 
must produce a certain amount of differential thrust under rapid 
temperature changes. Further, most granites hold occluded liquids 
and gases in closed cavities which were imprisoned during the con- 
solidation of the mass from its state of liquid fusion. These are 


mainly found in the quartz which is the last ingredient to separate 
out from an igneous magma. Under high temperature, they exert, 
no doubt, a heavy pressure upon the walls of the minute cavities and 
thus cooperate with the other influences in the work of disintegra- 

From consideration of the physical characteristics, it would 
appear that the varieties of rock having a close, firmly interlocked 
fabric and simple mineral composition would prove the most re- 
sistant to fire. Among the igneous rocks, granite might naturally 
be expected to succumb more easily than a rock like syenite or 
anorthosite which is composed mainly of feldspar, and actual tests 
seem to bear out that inference. Some sandstones are very nearly 
fireproof and limestones and marbles generally bear up well until 
the heat is sufficient to effect crumbling through calcination. The 
temperature necessary to produce incipient calcination of small cubes 
of limestone, according to Buckley,^ lies between 1000° and 
2000° F. McCourt ^ states that tests on some New York limestones 
did not show calcination at 550° C. (1022° F.). 

A temperature sufficient to cause flaking and cracking of granite, 
as well as sandstone and marble, may be attained in a fire that is 
confined to the comtents of a single building. The State Capitol fire 
of March 29, 191 1, which extended to only a part of the western 
wing of that building, played havoc with the granite columns and 
ornamental work, so that it was necessary to replace them wher- 
ever they came in direct contact with the flames. The columns were 
from Connecticut and Nova Scotia quarries. Some of the sandstone 
and marbles used in the interior work were cracked, but as a rule 
stood up better than the granite. The granite on the exterior of 'the 
building (a medium-grained gray stone from Maine) was injured 
to a minor extent, except in the lintels and cornices and other ex- 
posed parts, which were more or less cracked or disintegrated. 

Exposure to fire may bring about more or less change of color, 
through oxidation of any ferrous iron compounds or the dehydra- 
tion of limonite. It may also break down or expel some of the 
organic compounds which are coloring agents in limestones. 

Tests for fire resistance are usually conducted. on small samples 
of cubic shape, from one to four inches thick. The larger the sam- 
ples, the more nea'dy will the results approach those produced on 
building materials in an actual conflagration. 

1 0/>. cit., p. 385. 

2 Fire Tests on Some New York Building Stones. N. Y. State Mus. 
Bui. 100, p. 22. 1906. 

Plate 4 

Effects of fire upon building stone. Above are shown spalls of granite 
from a column, jjelow a cracked and broken sandstone cap; both are from 
the State Capitol, Albany, after the fire of March 29, 191 1. 


McCourt/ who experimented with some of the principal building 
stones from local quarries, employed three-inch cubes, making, so 
far as the materials would allow, six tests on each sample. Four 
tests were performed in a Seger gas furnace in which one cube at 
a time was heated. The heat was applied gradually until a tempera- 
ture of 550° C. was reached, this being maintained for half an hour. 
The cube was then taken out and allowed to cool in the air. A 
second sample was heated to the same temperature and then chilled 

suddenly by a stream of water. The third tube was treated in the 

same way as the first, except it was heated to 850°, and the fourth 

heated to 850° was chilled with water. Five tests were made with 
a gas blast to imitate, so far as practicable, the actual play of flame 
in a conflagration. On one sample, the blast operated for ten 
minutes, enveloping three sides in a steady stream ; after cooling 
for five minutes, the cube again received the blast during ten min- 
utes, after which it was cooled. The second cube was subjected to 
the flame for ten minutes and then a strong stream of water along 
with the blast for a period of five minutes. Then the water was 
turned oft" and the flame continued for another five minutes, after 
which, for five minutes more, the flame and water together were 
allowed to act on the sample. For the details for the tests, the 
reader should consult the paper itself. In brief, the results showed 
that all stones were fairly resistant to a temperature of 550° C. 
(1022° F.), and curiously, the granites showed up somewhat better 
than the others. At 850° C. (1562° F.), which probably represents 
the degree of heat reached in a conflagration, perhaps exceeding the 
temperature in some cases, all the stones were more or less injured, 
the amount of damage varying with the individual cubes. The 
granites and gneisses cracked and spalled. The sandstones parted 
along the bedding planes, a few developing crossyfractures. The 
limestones were little injured up to the point where calcination 
began, but after that they failed badly. The marbles developed 
cracks before the calcination temperature. The results, as pointed 
out by McCourt, were indicative of the effects of flame and 
water upon exposed stone work like cornices, lintels etc., rather 
than upon stone laid in walls which would suffer much less injury. 
Action of frost. Structural stone that is exposed to the recurrent 
effects of freezing and thawing may suffer more or less damage 
therefrom in the course of time. The ability to resist this kind of 
weathering is to some extent measurable by porosity, since it is the 

1 Op. cit. 


pressure exerted by the freezing of the included moisture that 
causes the damage. As ah-eady stated, however, neither the porosity 
nor the ratio of absorption can be regarded as an index of the 
resistance to such action under all conditions, since the character of 
the pore cavities exercises probably even more influence than their 
relative proportion. 

Other things being equal, if the pores are sufficiently large and 
connected to permit the fairly rapid escape of the absorbed water, 
the stone will prove more resistant than one having an intimate 
network of fine or capillary pores. 

The expansion of water in changing to solid ice amounts to one- 
tenth of its volume. It is, therefore, necessary that the pores 
should be filled to about nine-tenths of their capacity before the 
frost begins to become effective ; otherwise, there will be room for 
the expansion to take place without exerting any pressure. In 
nature, the condition of saturation in stone is very rarely approached 
and it is difficultly attainable even with the methods employed in 
the laboratory for determining porosity. It is, therefore, the degree 
to which the pores of a stone can be filled under natural conditions 
that determines the resistance to frost. The experimental tests in 
which complete saturation is established by long-continued soaking 
or with the aid of a vacuum are too severe for practical use. 

Hirschwald found that pieces of sandstone and granite removed 
from a building in Berlin at the end of December, about the begin- 
ning of freezing weather, and after a rainfall of 80 mm in the 
months of November and December, showed only a fraction of 
the moisture they were capable of absorbing. The specimens were 
taken from a height of 20 cm above and below the ground level. 
The samples of sandstone contained from one twenty-fourth to 
one twenty-eighth the amount of water tliey would hold after one 
hour's immersion. The granite from above ground level held about 
one-third and that from below the same quantity that the granite 
would absorb in one hour. 

The quantity of water absorbed by stone under natural condi- 
tions divided by the amount the same stone requires for the entire 
filling of the pores is termed the saturation coefficient. The danger 
point is reached when the coefficient is .9, as with more than that 
proportion the water on freezing will expand and exert pressure 
upon the cavity walls. According to Hirschwald, who bases his 
conclusions on about twelve hundred tests of different stones, the 
practical limit may be taken at ,8. 


The method for determining frost resistance as described by that 
writer is to subject the samples after soaking to a temperature of 
— 15° C. for four hours. The sample is then thawed in water at 
20° C. The operation is repeated twenty-five times after which 
it is examined for any weakening of strength or for fractures. 
The degree of saturation to which the samples are subjected at the 
beginning depends upon whether it is a matter of testing stones 
for use in dams or similar works submerged in water or for ordinary 
structures. In the former case, they are soaked for a period of 
30 days. In testing architectural stones, they are placed in water 
for a period of from 2 to 13 hours, depending on their density. 

In Smock's report are included the results of several tests on 
New York building stones. The samples weighing from 300 to 
400 grams were saturated with water and subjected to alternate 
freezing and thawing seven times. All the granites and limestones 
passed the tests uninjured so far as noted; likewise the marbles, 
except one sample from Pleasantville ; and the sandstones, with the 
exception of one sample from Oswego Falls. The two samples 
specified developed checks after repeated freezings. 


Section 2 



The physical features of our State as they now appear have 
their beginnings far back in the remote periods of geologic time. 
Among the rock formations underlying its surface are some of the 
oldest that are anywhere exposed on the American continent, pos- 
sibly antedating the appearance of life, and at any rate so com- 
pletely altered by the vicissitudes of the ages that they show no 
recognizable organic remains and few of their original physical 
structures. Tt is in those Precambric formations as represented in 
the Adirondacks and the southeastern Highlands that the earliest 
records of the physical development of our State are to be sought. 

There is naturally much doubt about the conditions which pre- 
vailed in the remote periods of time included within the Precambric 
era. It would appear, however, that the continental land surface 
already existed in general outline in that era, although of course 
the area was not confined by the present bounds. Most of the 
Precambric formations now exposed are gathered in the north on 
the Canadian side of the boundary; the southern line of this central 
or nuclear area follows the St Lawrence river from the Gulf to 
the Great Lakes. But there are important extensions of this old 
land to the south of Lake Superior in Michigan, Wisconsin and 
Minnesota and also one considerable area farther east in the 
Adirondacks. The Hudson Highlands, a part of the Appalachian 
highland, also have Precambric strata along their main axis. 

The lowest formations of this old land surface which are largely 
of igneous character may be separately' classed in the Archean 
system. Upon their exposed parts the agencies of construction 
and destruction were operative probably in a similar manner and 
with equal energy as now. From the erosional waste, extensive 
deposits of limestone, shale and sandstone were accumulated at a 
later period beneath the waters which encroached on the land. 
These old sediments, aside from their highly metamorphosed states, 
are not essentially different from those accumulated during succeed- 
ing ages. Volcanic forces no doubt had their part in the develop- 
ment of the structure, but all vestiges of the ancient lava flows 
have been swept away and only the underlying channels are now in 
evidejnce with their fillings of diabase and porphyry. 


In the Adirondack region no basement or crystalline complex 
assignable to the Archean period has been discovered. The oldest 
igneous rocks apparently have intrusive relations with the sediments 
whenever they come in contact with the latter, and consequently 
the first recognizable elements are of clastic origin, classed as 
Grenville or Algonkian. These consist of crystalline limestones 
or marbles, banded and foliated gneisses, hornblende and mica 
schists, and quartzites. They are interfolded with the early igneous 
gneisses and have been invaded and injected by all the Precambric 
intrusions. They have consequently a patchy distribution, though 
forming belts of rather wide extent on the northwestern side. They 
bear no recognizable life remains and the only evidence that life 
existed at the time is the abundance of carbon in the form of 
carbonates and graphite. The more important quarry materials 
of Grenville age are the limestones which yield building and monu- 
mental marbles and are sources of high-grade limes. 

The deep-seated igneous rocks consist of granites (both gneissoid 
and massive), syenite, gabbro and anorthosite. Among the granites 
may be recognized at least two classes based on their relative age ; 
an older, much compressed, finely granular variety that has been 
squeezed out and elongated into beltlike bodies, and a younger, 
massive, coarser type that occurs in the form of bathyliths and 
bosses. In the earlier series may be present parts of the Archean 
basement if they are anywhere existent. The younger granites are 
most useful for c[uarry purposes. The Adirondack syenite has 
sometimes a reddish color, like that of much of the granite into 
which it grades in places, but the characteristic and by far the 
most widely developed variety is a green augite syenite, usually 
with the original textures and structures well preserved. There 
are, however, crushed and more or less foliated types of the green 
syenite. The gabbros are found in dikes and bosses as separate 
intrusions and as border phases of the anorthosite with which there 
appears to be complete gradation. The anorthosite constitutes an 
immense bathylith in the east central section of the Adirondacks, 
the largest intrusion of the whole region and, except for a few 
areas of Grenville which were probably engulfed during its approach 
to the surface, a practically unbroken mass. The several periods 
of igneous activity to which these deep-seated masses may be as- 
signed were probably times of crustal upheaval and metamorphism, 
at least the varied conditions of foliation, crushing and recrystalliza- 
tion which are exhibited by the intrusions seem to be significant 
of repeated modifications by dynamic agencies. As the last mani- 


festation of igneous action in the Precambric era came intrusions 
of diabase, reaching the surface no doubt and forming lavas, but 
now found only in the filled-up channels or dikes below the old 
outlets. There are countless numbers of these dikes in the eastern 
and northern Adirondacks. They are all younger than the last 
period of general metamorphism and have remained practically 
unchanged, except by surface weathering. 

The Highlands region, according to the more recent investiga- 
tions which have been carried on chiefly by Berkey,^ presents quite 
an array of Precambric rocks quite similar to those already enu- 
merated for the Adirondacks, except that here the acid or more 
siliceous types greatly predominate in the igneous complex. The 
main element in the geology of the central area is a group of 
gneisses, which are known to be composite, though they have not 
been definitely classified. They include the oldest formations and 
such contrasting representatives as the massive granite gneiss of 
Storm King in the northern section and the foliated banded Ford- 
ham gneiss which has sedimentary affinities and is widely distributed 
in Westchester county. There is also a considerable development 
of mixed types, probably an involved aggregate of igneous and 
sedimentary derivatives. Small bands of crystalline limestone and 
quartzite are found in the central Highlands and, with the older 
sedimentary gneisses, constitute a series which is placed by Berkey 
in the Grenville. There seems to be no recognizable parts of the 
Arohean in this section. The Precambric intrusives are mostly 
granites, with a few syenites and diorites. Igneous activities did 
not cease, however, with the close of the Precambric, as was the 
case in the Adirondacks, but continued as late at least as Siluric 

The older gneisses in the region are succeeded by a group of 
metamorphosed sedimentary formations including crystalline lime- 
stones, schists and quartzites. These find strong representation in 
the southern section where the limestones have some importance 
for building marbles and lime-burning. While they are certainly 
younger than the gneisses of the central Highlands, their precise 
place and relations are not altogether clear. It is possible, as has 
been suggested by Merrill, that they are the more thoroughly 
metamorphosed equivalents of the Hudson river beds to the north 
of the Highlands, in which case they belong to the Cambric and 

1 See specially " Structure and Stratigraphic Features of the Basal Gneisses 
of the Highlands." N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 107/ 1907. 


Lower Siluric systems. Berkey would separate them into an earlier 
Precambric and a later or Paleozoic group, of which the Precambric 
group is made up of the Lowerre quartzite, In wood limestone and 
Manhattan schist — the members that belong more strictly to the 
Highlands region. The later, or Paleozoic formations, are the 
Poughquag quartzite, Wappinger limestone and Hudson River 
slates ; they occur only in small down-faulted areas in the Highlands, 
but have a very widespread distribution north of there, particularly 
the slates which outcrop along the whole central Hudson valley. 
The Yonkers gneiss may be mentioned in connection with the 
Precambric, as an igneous derivative, later than the Fordham 
gneiss with which it is in contact. It occurs in a long narrow belt 
and in isolated bodies in southern Westchester county. According 
to the earlier interpretation, as advanced by Merrill, its age is later 
than the Hudson River slates. The rock has considerable local im- 
portance as a building stone. 

The period of Precambric history, so far as it can be formulated 
from the rocks of the New York areas, began, therefore, with the 
accumulation of sediments composed of quartzose, argillaceous and 
calcareous materials that are collectively known as the Grenville 
series. They miust have been derived from some preexisting rocks 
which, if still found anywhere, represent the Archean or basal 
complex of the Lake Superior and Canadian regions, but so far 
no vestiges of this older surface have been identified. Subsequent 
to their deposition, there was a long lapse of time in which the 
forces of upheaval, metamorphism and igneous activity were mani- 
fested at intervals on a tremendous scale. The sediments were 
compressed, plicated and completely recrystallized. Their lower 
parts were invaded and broken up by deep-seated intrusions, 
representing several different periods and rock varieties. Volcanic 
energy was also displayed and led no doubt to extensive accumula- 
tions of lavas and other igneous materials at the surface. By these 
agencies, the land areas must have acquired a very considerable 
elevation, probably with a rugged mountainous topography -to which 
the surface of the present day is hardly comparable as to altitude 
and massive features. Upon such land surfaces erosion would be 
very active and powerful in its results. Destruction thus was in 
progress while the upbuilding went on ; while in the latter part of 
the Precambric time there was a long period of continued erosion 
without compensation by uplift. The effects of this were the re- 
moval of an immense but unknown thickness of rock from the 
upper zone, leaving the deeper buried parts exposed much as they 


are today and greatly reducing the inequalities of contour. The 
waste thus derived was washed toward the sea to form the first 
of the normal fossiliferous rocks. 

The Paleozoic era began with the deposition of sediments upon the 
uneven surface of the Precambric crystalline rocks. It appears that 
with the close of the Precambric era the land which had remained 
above water since Grenville time underwent a gradual subsidence, 
bringing the outer borders within reach of the sea. With its sub- 
mergence there were formed stratified deposits which contain the 
earliest records of life that are at all well defined and abundant. 
The lowest members, belonging to the Lower and Middle Cambric 
groups, are not so widely developed in this State as the Upper or 
Saratogian group in which lies the Potsdam sandstone. This is 
exposed in a rather broad but variable belt on the north and north- 
western sides of the Adirondacks where it still preserves a horizontal 
position on the eroded edges of the Precambric rocks. It is also 
present in the Lake Champlain valley and on the southeastern edge 
of the Adirondacks as broken areas of a once continuous belt. In 
its characteristic form it is a cjuartzite, and a very hard, durable 
stone. The lowermost Cambric beds include the Poughquag quartz- 
ite in southern Dutchess county and the Georgia slates found in 
the metamorphic area along the New England boundary. Besides 
the Potsdam cjuartzite, the Saratogian group also contains some 
limestones of which the better known member, the Little Falls 
dolomite, is quite extensively developed in the Mohawk valley and 
is the basis of quarry operations. The limestones are usually im- 
pure, representing a transition from the sandstones to the high- 
grade limestones above. 

With the continuance of the submergence and consequent deep- 
ening of the waters, the deposition of the Champlainic or Lower 
Siluric beds was begun without any break or interruption to mark 
the line of division with the Cambric group. The more important 
representatives in the lower part consist of limestones, of which 
the Tribes Hill, and Beekmantown and Chazy members may be 
named. The first has little importance areally, but the Beekman- 
town (inclusive of the middle and upper beds as earlier defined) is 
quite widely distributed in the Champlain valley. The Chazy is 
found in the same region from Saratoga county north to the Cana- 
dian border ; it is one of the purest calcium limestones in the 
State. The subsidence of the land surface continued and the waters 
encroached more and more upon it. This provided opportunity for 
the deposition of the Mohawkian (Trenton) group of limestones, 


the most widespread and the thickest of the calcareous sediments. 
Among the individual members are included the Lowville, Black 
River and Trenton beds in the order of sequence. In the lower 
section they are heavily bedded and quite pure, but become shaly 
toward the top. They have importance for building stone, cement 
and lime manufacture. They are often highly fossiliferous. They 
occur in the Champlain valley, but are more prominent on the 
Vermont side than on the New York shores. Continuous with 
the Vermont area, a belt extends across Washington county into 
Warren and Saratoga counties. Another large belt begins in the 
Mohawk valley near Little Falls and extends northwesterly with 
increasing width to the St Lawrence river, overlapping onto the 
Adirondack crystalline rocks. The upper limestone beds of the 
Trenton pass gradually into shales, indicating an influx of mud. 
This condition lasted through the Cincinnatian period when the 
Utica, Frankfort and Pulaski shales of central New York were 
laid down. Li the Hudson valley and eastward there was a marked 
preponderance of shales over limestones in the sedimentation 
throughout the whole Lower Siluric period; the great mass of shales 
which has come to be known as the Flud'sion River formati'on began 
to be deposited in fact as early as Cambric time. 

At the close of the Lower Siluric period, the Taconic disturbance 
interrupted sedimentation in the area along the Hudson river and 
upraised that section into dry land. The agencies of compression 
and metamorphism which were forceful enough to produce a highly 
folded and more or less metamorphosed condition in the shales, 
limestones and sandstones of the east did not extend their effects 
very far to the west. The Adirondack and Mohawk valley forma- 
tions were not changed noticeably or disturbed from their normal 
position, though possibly there was some faulting which initiated 
the great meridional breaks along the eastern and southern Adiron- 
dacks. In the Highlands regions the effects may have been much 
more pronoun-ced, as indicated by the intrusion of the great boss of 
the Cortland rocks. Other deep-seated invasions may be repre- 
sented by the serpentine masses of Staten Island and Rye and by 
the Harrison diorite, though these are possibly of earlier date. 

The Ontario or Upper Siluric period was continuous with the 
Lower Siluric as regards sedimentation in the interior of the State, 
though on the borders of the Taconic land surface the two series 
of formations are separated by a strong erosional unconformity. 
The Upper Siluric was a time of shallow water accumulations. 
In the basal members, as represented by the Oswego and Medina 


sandstones and the Oneida conglomerate, the materials consisted 
largely oif the coarser detritus washed do-wn by rapid streams and 
deposited close to the shores. The Medina, however, contains 
much shale near the top. The Niagara formations are mainly 
shale (CHnton and Rochester) and dolomite (Lockport and 
Guelph). During Clinton time, the waters were probably rather 
shoal with off-shore bars sheltering them from the sea as indicated 
by the precipitation of iron ores along with sandstones, shales and 
limestones. The formations up to the Guelph had been deposited 
along a nearly east-west shore line that lay to the south of the 
Canadian and Adirondack highlands ; they are now found in belt- 
like areas extending across the central and western parts of the 
State. In the Cayugan period the zone of sedimentation extended 
into southeastern New York on the shore of the Appalachian pro- 
taxis. The Salina shales formed at the opening of the period are 
characterized by the deposits of rock salt and gypsum which prob- 
ably resulted from the evaporation of the sea waters in confined 
basins. The succeeding formations include the Cobleskill, Rondout 
and Manlius limestones. The Medina sandstone at the base of 
the Upper Siluric is one of the more important building stones 
in the State and the various limestones named find utilization for 
lime, cement or constructional purposes. 

The change to Devonic time was very gradual and no break 
occurred in the sedimentation. In the first or Helderbergian period 
the deposits were mainly calcareous and restricted to the central and 
eastern parts. The Oriskanian period began with limestones, but 
afterward the Oriskany sandstone, a very persistent, chiefly arenace- 
ous, formation was deposited. To Ulsterian time belongs the Onon- 
daga limestone, one of the very important calcareous formations, 
largely quarried in the central and western sections. With the 
Erian period began the accumulation of the great series of Devonic 
shales and sandstones that spread over the whole southern plateau 
section of the State from the Catskills and Helderbergs west to the 
Pennsylvania border. The sandstone members are the bluestone 
quarried for flagging, curbing and building stone and range in age 
from the Hamilton in the Erian period to the Chemung at the top 
of the Devoniic. In the Senecan period occurred an interval oi 
limestone deposition in the central part represented by the Tully 

The Carbonic era introduced at the start no marked variation in 
the sedimentation. The representatives include shales and sand- 
stones with conglomerate at the top ; the last being the equivalent 


of a part of the Pottsville conglomerate in Pennsylvania. There 
are no coal beds anywhere exposed and the conditions requisite 
for their production did not become very general until after the 
last of the local beds were laid down. The Carbonic strata are 
limited to a small area in the extreme southwestern section. The 
long lapse of time that ensued to the close of the Carbonic and all 
of the following Permic era find no record in the strata of New 
York State. 

The Appalachian revolution brought Paleozoic time to an end 
and marked the final emergence of practically the whole mainland 
area of New York from the sea. The disturbance resulted in a 
broad uplift in the central and western parts of the State, but no 
change in the relative attitude of the formations. . In the southeast, 
however, along the main axis it developed in some folding as shown 
by the Shawangunk mountains. 

Mesozoic time was marked by only slight additions to the geo- 
logical structure of the State. The Newark shales of late Triassic 
age, which occur in Rockland and Richmond counties were prob- 
ably formed in estuaries along the coast. During and after their 
deposition, igneous activity was manifested by the intrusion of 
diabase which, in places, reached the surface. The Palisades con- 
sist of the exposed edge of a diabase sill intruded along shale and 
sandstone beds of Newark age. With the last, or Cretacic, period 
of Cenozoic time came the deposition of the older clays of Staten 
Island and Long Island. 

During the Cenozoic interval there were small accumulations of 
Tertiary clays in the same areas. The most important event of the 
era in its influence upon the local geology occurred in the Quatenary 
period with the change of climate that brought on an ice invasion. 
This advanced from north to south and spread over the whole 
State, overriding even the higher mountains. The ice eroded away 
the loose materials accumulated by weathering and also transported 
immense quantities of rock which it plucked from the bared sur- 
faces. The contours were rounded off and the land covered with 
a mantle of clay and boulders (till), the transported materials 
being also heaped up in the form of hills and ridges which are 
known as moraines and drumlins. The drainage was also obstructed 
or rem'odeled ; some large lakes occupied the main river valleys for 
a time, as in the Hudson valley. The main effect of the ice upon 
the rock surface was to remove the evidences of the long pre- 
ceding period of weathering; consequently the rock outcrops appear 
much fresher than they do in the unglaciated territory to the south 
of New York. 


Section 3 


Before entering upon the description of the different quarry- 
materials, it may be well to explain that the classification of rocks 
into three principal groups • — igneous, sedimentary and meta- 
morphic — which has been followed hitherto scarcely serves the 
purpose of an economic classification that is based on general 
quarry features and uses. From a practical standpoint, there is 
no line of division to be drawn between many metamorphic gneisses 
and schists and the igneous rocks, since they may have the same 
applications and present the same problems in quarrying and dress- 
ing. It is customary, therefore, to include the metamorphosed 
silicate rocks which are useful for structural stones with the mas- 
sive igneous types, and that practice will be followed here. 

The other metamorphic rocks include slates which ^are placed in 
a separate division, marbles which with some nonmetamorphic lime- 
stones are also separately described, and quartzites which from an 
economic point of view belong in the class of sandstones. 

The crystalline silicate rocks of the Adirondacks and southeastern 
New York embrace a variety of individual types such as granite 
in the strict sense, syenite, diorite, anorthosite, gabbro of different 
kinds, diabase, and an assemblage of gneisses and schists that in- 
cludes both igneous and sedimentary derivatives of varied mineral 


As an architectural stone, granite outranks the other igneous 
rocks of the State, which is true also wherever the crystalline 
silicate rocks are exploited. Its prominence is due in part to its 
relatively widespread occurrence, but largely to the combination 
of qualities in regard to color, uniformity and ease of extraction 
and dressing which is less often found in the other stones. The 
prevalent taste for light-colored stone in buildings has much to 
do with its general favor. 

Although quarrymen and builders use the term granite rather 
indiscriminately to designate almost any of the silicate rocks that 
have been named, it probably belongs to a single rock series of 
igneous origin which is characterized in composition by the pres- 
ence of potash, feldspar and quartz. These two minerals always 
predominate, but are often accompanied b}^ others in greater 

Plate 5 

Photomicrograph of granite gneiss, Little Falls. Large particles are quartz 
and the rest mainly feldspar. Enlarged 22 times. 

Photomicrograph of Vonkers granite. The components are quartz, feldspar 
and mica. Enlarged 22 times. 


or less quantity, especially plagioclase, which may share importance 
with the potash feldspar, and by mica, hornblende or, rarely, py- 
roxene. The potash feldspar is either microcline or orthoclase, the 
former being the more common. Mica occurs in two forms — 
the white or transparent muscovite and the black biotite ; usually 
both are present, but if one alone occurs, it is more often biotite. 
Hornblende is a rather common ingredient of local granites in 
which it replaces the mica wholly or in part. Pyroxene, which 
resembles hornblende in appearance when seen in the hand specimen, 
is restricted to a few types which are related to the syenites. 

Besides the more important or essential ingredients named, 
granites usually contain a number of others in very small amount 
which may be called accessory constituents. Such are apatite, zir- 
con, rutile, magnetite, pyrite, fluorite, tourmaline and garnet. There 
may be also various secondary minerals which have been derived 
by chemical alteration from some of the original constituents ; thus 
sericite, kaolin and cakite result from the alteration of feldspar, 
and chlorite, serpentine, epidote and iron oxides result from the 
dark iron-magnesia minerals. 

The chemical composition of various local granites will be found 
under the quarry localities elsewhere in this volume. 

The texture of granite is usually even-grained, with the feld- 
spar and quartz in particles of nearly the same magnitude. There 
is no regularity, however, as to the size of the particles in granites 
from different localities, and there is likely to be more or less 
variation in that respect in different parts of the same mass. A 
granite may be said to have a coarse texture if the crystals of 
quartz or feldspar average over lO mm or 0.4 inch in diameter; 
niediiiiii if the crystals range between 10 mm and 5 mm; and 
fine if they are less than 5 mm. In the very fine sorts, the crystals 
average under i mm. The same rule for classifying textures will 
be applied to the other quarry stones. 

The specific gravity of granite varies from about 2.5 to 2.75. 
This corresponds to a weight, without allowance for porosity, of 
from 156 to 172 pounds to the cubic foot. The average weight is 
about 165 pounds,, and a cubic yard in the quarry may be taken 
roundly as equal to 4500 pounds. 

Granites are white, gray or pink in color, with occasional examples 
showing a bright or deep red. The feldspar is the main coloring 
agent, as it predominates over the other ingredients, but the gen- 
eral color eft'ect is really a combination of the individual colors 
of the minerals. Muscovite and fjuartz are colorless or translucent 


white, and the iron-bearing ingredients (biotite, hornblende and 
pyroxene) are usually black. By alteration to sericite or kaolin, the 
feldspar loses its naturally brilliant luster and becomes opaque and 
earthy. The coloration of some granites arises from infiltration of 
iron compounds in sufficient amount to overcome the color values 
of the silicates and impart their own effects. This is well instanced 
by the yellow Mohegan granite from near Peekskill, the beautiful 
color of which is traceable to a little limonite that has found its 
way into the stone by means of the capillary pores. That the 
color is not due to local alteration of the minerals is very apparent 
from examination of thin sections which show the only iron-bear- 
ing silicate (biotite) to be quite fresh in most of the stone and only 
occasionally is a local deepening of the color observable about that 
mineral. At the surface the biotite shows some alteration with the 
production of chlorite, but there is very little iron discharged in 
the process, altogether too little for the amount of limonite dis- 
tributed through the body of the rock. Apparently the iron has 
come from above, probably introduced in solution as a ferrous 
compound to be subsequently oxidized to limonite. 


Syenite and anorthosite belong to separate rock series but, from 
a practical standpoint, are much alike. Both consist of feldspar 
as the essential ingredient, with accessory hornblende, biotite, py- 
roxene and magnetite. In syenite, the feldspar is an alkali variety, 
either 'mlicrocline or orthoclase, or an intergrowth of one of these 
with albite, known as microperthite. Anorthosite, however, con- 
sists of a basic plagioclase, usually labradorite, with one or more 
of the iron-bearing silicates and usually ilmenite in the place of 

Their structure is mostly even-granular and compact. As to 
strength and durability, they are nowise inferior to the granites, 
if not exceeding them in some elements which make for permanency. 
In specific gravity they average a little higher than the latter and 
range from about 2.65 to 2.90, with 2.75 perhaps as a mean value. 
Their weight is accordingly around 175 pounds to the cubic foot. 

They are not so abundantly distributed as granite, but where 
they occur they constitute equally large bodies, sometimes forming 
bosses and bathyliths of great size. 

The color of syenite, and of anorthosite as well, is darker than 
that of average granites. Green and blue tones are not rare, and 
the luster from the feldspar is often very brilliant, making the 

Plate 6 

Photomicrograph of green syenite, Ausable Forks. Mostly feldspar, with 
some quartz and pyroxene. Enlarged 22 times. 

Photomicrograoh of anorthosite. Split Rock. The main component is lab- 
radorite which appears stratiated. Enlarged 22 times. 


sloiic scrvicc.'iMc foi' iiolislicil :\\\i\ (|c(oi";il ivc work. 'I he (Iccp 
j^jiX'i'ti of llic Adiroiid.'irls syciiilc is very rliaraclcrisi ic. Aiiorl liositc 
is c'itluT ^y:iy or dark' ^rvv.u, the Killer hciiif^ chaructcrislit: of the 
fcl(ks|)ar ill its ori^dnal state, while Loay is jjcculiar to the crushed 
and recryslani/.cd varieties. The nnernshed feldspar sliows the 
bhie iridescenee conimon lo lahiadorile whitli adds iiiik li lo ihe 
beauty of poh'shcfl samples. 

'I'liere are no pernliarilies in the. weatherin}.( of tlu; two rocks, 
and tiiey yield Ihe same decomposition ])r(jdiicts nanicfl under gran- 
ite. On the whole, syenite appears more resistant to frcjst action 
than the latter, at least it seldom breaks np into a j^raiiiilai' -A^ffra- 
gate which not infrefpiently marks the oulcroj) of granite- bodies. 
As to the durability of anfjrthosite, little can be said from tlu- point 
of practical e.xjieriencc- since it has not been used very lon^ for 
outdoor work. The rock, in ]jlace, shows bttlc change ow the 
surface. At Augur lake, near Keeseville, there are vertical cliCfs 
of anorthosile which have been direetjy exposed to the; weather 
ever since the glacial period ; these show a bleached film not more 
than one-fourth of an iixli thick coating tlu; surfaee, but no stain 
or softening. This appears a favorable indication of its jjermanency 
under atmos|>heric conrlitions. 


The name diorite is used to denote a rock containing plagioclasc 
and hornblende as essential miiieials. The plagifjclase is nearer the 
albitc than the anorthite. end of tlu; series, including such varieties 
as oligoclase and andesine ; the hornblende is the same !:iiifl that 
accompanies syenite or granile and is usually ])leiilifnl. 'Ihe rolor, 
consecjuently, is ralher dail;, with the grayish tones predoniinating. 
Some diorites contain considerable bifjtite which, if it gains ascend- 
ency over the hornblende, makes a mica-difjrite as flistingnisbcf! frf)m 
the hornblende tyjic which is simply a diorite. The cfjinposil ion of 
the fliorite is iiitermediate between that of granites on one side and 
the gabbros on the (jther, and it might be expected to lind gradatifjn 
toward either series, through the apju-arance of certain characteristic 
minerals. The mingling of f|nart/. and alkali feldsjjar makes a 
rather comnuju variation horn the ty]>e, leading to the class of 
granodiorites which may be described equally well as basic granites. 

The fliorites are not common rocks in this State. There are no 
large areas of ly])ical massive diorite; some of the gneisses in the 
Adirondacks are related to diorites in mineral comjjosition, having 
perhaps originaterl frrjm such rocks, though now changcfl to the 



gneissoid somewhat altered forms which are commonly termed 
greenstones. The characteristic green hue of these altered types 
is due to the formation of a chloritic mineral out of the hornblende 
or biotite. 

Granodiorite is represented by the great area of so-called Har- 
rison diorite in Westchester county and by smaller masses in both 
the Adirondacks and southeastern New York. 

The physical characters of diorites are not very different from 
those described under granites ; in the case of granodiorites the 
resemblances are very close. They are a little darker in color, 
never appearing in reddish tones, but always grayish or greenish; 
average around 2.8 or 2.9 in specific gravity, corresponding to a 
mean of about 180 pounds to the cubic foot; and are useful for all 
purposes to which granites are put, except they are less readily 
polished, owing to the presence of so much hornblende and mica. 


Gabbro is composed typically of pyroxene and plagioclase, the 
latter being one of the more basic varieties — labradorite or anorthite. 
Unlike the rocks previously described, it usually contains more of 
the iron-bearing silicates than of feldspathic minerals and hence 
the color is very dark, ranging from grayish or greenish gray to 
black. The pyroxene includes both orthorhombic and monoclinic 
varieties which very frequently stow parfcial alteration to horn- 
blende. Olivine is a common and at times an important ingredient; 
its presence is denioted by a prefix to the rock named, for example 

Gabbros are peculiarly subject to fluctuations in mineral com- 
position through a relative gain in the proportion of one or another 
of the common minerals, a variation caused by some process of 
differentiation during the period of intrusion and consolidation. 
By increase of the feldspar and corresponding shrinkage in the 
pyroxene there results the rock already described as anorthosite. 
This is really, therefore, a gabbroic type and not related directly to 
syenite. The predominance of pyroxene leads to pyroxenite, in 
which feldspar is very sparsely if at all represented. Olivine, with 
subordinate amounts of feldspar and pyroxene, forms a peridotite. 
The principal iron ore in gabbro is ilmenite which may be sufficiently 
concentrated locally to form fairly pure masses of considerable 

The gabbros, owing to their content of the iron-magnesia sili- 
caites, are rather heavy, averaging from 2.8 to over 3 in specific 
gravity. Their weight ranges from 175 to 200 pounds to the cubic 

Plate 7 

Photomicrograph of gabbro, Port Henry. Constituents are pyroxene, 
feldspar and magnetite. 

Photomicrograph of diabase, Fort Ann. Lath-shaped crystals of feldspar 
in a groundmass of pyroxene. Enlarged 22 times. 


foot. In fresh condition they are fairly hard and exceedingly 
tough, but lose these qualities rapidly if decomposed by atmospheric 
weathering. Their decomposition is sometimes hastened by the 
presence of sulphides, which are likely to be abundant in places, 
more so than in acid rocks. The characteristic alteration product of 
the more basic gabbros is serpentine. 

Gabbros find little employment for architectural work, owing to 
their somber appearance. They are used to some extent for dec- 
orative and monumental purposes under the trade name of " black 
granite." Quarries in Maine, Minnesota and North Carolina have 
supplied such stone, but very little has come from the large gabbro 
areas of New York. The main developments in this State have 
been for the supply of crushed stone for macadam and concrete, for 
which purposes the fine-grained dense sorts may be considered equal 
to the best trap. 

The limited use of the stone for general purposes is partly due, 
no doubt, to the expense of dressing it. The basic rocks seldom 
show any rift or grain structure, but break with a curved fracture 
without reference to direction. 


Trap is a popular term for the dark, fine-grained igneous rocks 
that occur in intrusive sheets and dikes. It is thus not a distinct 
rock type, but may include diabase, basalt and any of the basic 
intrusions which have a sheetlike form. In New York State, the 
name is ecjuivalent practically to diabase, an intrusive containing 
lime-soda feldspar and pyroxene as essential ingredients, with 
subordinate amphibole, olivine and pyroxene. The composition 
thus is very similar to that of gabbro, but the appearance of the 
rock is quite characteristic, owing to the manner in which the 
minerals are distributed. The feldspar forms laths or rectangular 
rods that inclose the pyroxene, olivine and amphibole in their ir- 
regular interspaces like a network. This gives a firmly interlocked 
texture which insures a high degree of toughness and resistance to 

Diabase is almost black on rock face and polished surfaces. Like 
gabbros, it finds limited employment for structural stone. Its 
specific gravity is about 2.9 and the weight around 180 pounds to 
the cubic foot. Its fine grain promotes evenness of wear, so that 
with its other qualities it is exceptionally well adapted for road 
material and concrete in all cases that involve heavy duty. Some 
examples make a good black granite, as shown by specimens of 


the polished Palisades stone in the State Museum. Ordinarily it 
has no rift or grain and hence is difficult to reduce into dimension 
blocks ; in some quarries, however, the stone splits readily enough 
to be converted into Belgian blocks. 

The main area of diabase in this State is the Palisades intrusion, 
a long north-south sill or sheet lying within shales and sandstones 
of Triassic age and extending from Haverstraw to near Richmond 
on Staten Island. The sill is from 300 to 800 feet thick. Its ex- 
posed eastern edge with its vertical joint systems, forms the pre- 
cipitous cliffs of the Palisades. This area has been a prolific 
source of crushed stone which has been used in road-making and 
concrete throughout the lower Hudson valley. There are countless 
numbers of diabase dikes in the Adirondacks, particularly in the 
northern and eastern sections, but they are mostly small, averaging 
only a foot or two thick, occasionally reaching 20 or 30 feet, and 
in one instance at Little Falls, nearly 100 feet. 


Gneiss and schist are general terms applied to the' metamorphic 
silicate rocks whose original char'acters of texture, structure and, 
not infrequently, mineral composition have been more or less com- 
pletely changed under influences of compression, heat and chemical 
agencies. Their chief structural peculiarity arises from a parallel 
arrangement of the minerals, the light and dark components being 
segregated in lines or bands which simulate the bedded structure of 
sedimentary rocks. The planes of segregation, as in the case of 
bedded struc'ture, mark the directions of actual or potential parting ; 
the schists, particularly, have a very well-developed capacity for 
splitting which resembles slaty cleavage in its perfection. 

The gneisses of more massive type are' suitable for general con- 
struction purposes but ordinarily do not lend themselves to deco- 
rative uses on account of their lack of uniform texture and appear- 
ance, both of which vary with the direction of view. Such kinds 
are mainly derived from granite and other massive igneous rocks. 
Under the influence of powerful compressive forces, the originals 
have been squeezed and stretched, bringing the scaly and elongated 
minerals into parallel alignment and crushing the rest into granular 
aggregates. The change may be not altogether a physical one, but 
is generally accompanied by the development of new minerals and 
more or less recrystallization of the mass. If the massive rocks 
originally had a coarse or porphyritic appearance, very often there 
will remain shattered but still distinct crystal aggregates of the 



porphyritic mineral in the midst of the finer material. This is 
particularly observed in the metamorphic products of feldspathic 
rocks like granite and syenite which often show lenticular remnants 
of the original porphyritic feldspars and are known as " augen " 

Gneisses have all the variations in composition that are found 
in the igneous rocks. Those of granitic composition are naturally 
the most important for quarry purposes. Many of the granite 
masses show gneissic phases on their borders, as is the case also of 
the syenites, gabbros etc., the parallel lamination arising from 
differential compression during consolidation or later. In some 
places gneisses are formed by the injection of igneous material into 
a hornblende or mica schist that is itself a modified sediment. 
There are many such occurrences in the Adirondacks in localities 
where the Grenville schists have been invaded by granite ; the latter 
apparently in its cooling has given ofif solutions charged with 
mineral materials which penetrated into the schist for long distances 
and converted it into a firm, hard gneiss. The so-called granite from 
Horicon is really an injected mica schist, with porphyritic feldspars 
and quartz derived from igneous sources. The Manhattan schist 
and Fordham gneiss as represented in most of the quarry localities 
contain a large proportion of granitic material interleaving or com- 
mingled with the ingredients from sedimentary sources, and it is 
by reason of this injection that they are serviceable quarry stones. 


The mineral serpentine is formed almost entirely by alteration 
of other ferro-magnesian silicates, chiefly pyroxene and olivine. The 
latter minerals, as has been noted already, are important constitu- 
ents of the basic igneous rocks of the gabbro family, some members 
of which are made up wholly of them. Their alteration, which 
is a process of hydration largely, with the separation of more or 
less lime as calcite and of some of the iron as iron oxides, takes 
place readily under atmospheric weathering and leads to the for- 
mation of extensive bodies of rock serpentine that has some use 
for architectural and decorative purposes. 

There are several areas of serpentine in southeastern New York, 
of which the largest is on Staten Island, covering all the higher 
central part of that island. Other bodies are found on Manhattan 
island (now concealed), at New Rochelle and Rye. The rock in 
these places has little economic importance, owing to its badly 


jointed and fractured condition. Serpentine is one of the softer 
minerals and on that account the rock can not be apphed to general 
constructional purposes, but finds a market chiefly as an ornamental 
material by reason of its lustrous green color and of the striking 
pattern produced by the blotches or veinings of iron ores and 

Besides this kind of serpentine, mention may be made of serpen- 
tinous marbles or ophicalcites which are derived from impure 
sedimentary limestones. In the metamorphism of the limestones, 
pyroxene is formed which later changes over to serpentine, giving 
a mottled or spotted effect of green on a white body of calcite. 
Such serpentinous marbles occur in the eastern Adirondacks and 
have been used to a limited extent for monumental and interior 
decorative work. 


Pegmatite is really a member of the granite series, being a coarse- 
grained intrusive composed of feldspar, quartz and mica. It has 
little value for structural purposes which granite serves, and in its 
mode of occurrence and origin differs somewhat from the ordinary 
representatives of that series. It is found in dikes with fairly 
regular tabular form, but also occurs in irregular winding veins 
and occasionally in masses that show a lenticular or rounded out- 
crop like bosses of the finer grained igneous rocks. The latter 
type may attain very large proportions, that is a thousand feet or 
more in diameter, while the dikes seldom exceed 40 or 50 feet in 
thickness and for the most part are under 10 feet. 

The mineralogy of pegmatites is of much interest on account of 
the variety and fine crystallizations of the species that accompany 
them. The important species, however, are the same as those 
described as essential constituents of granite. The quartz is com- 
monly white, gray or pink, occurring in crystals or massive, and 
ranging from a few inches to several feet in diameter. It is also 
more or less intergrown with the feldspar, sometimes in a peculiar 
way which is known as " graphic granite." The feldspar includes 
the alkali varieties like microcline, orthoclase and albite, with 
usually more or less of lime-soda feldspar of oligoclase or andesine 
nature. Individual crystals sometimes measure 5 or 6 feet long. 
Both the quartz and feldspar are valuable where they can be ob- 
tained in condition of fair purity and uncontaminated by iron ; their 
principal use is in pottery, but they serve many other purposes. 
The mica of pegmatite belongs to both the lighter iron-free sorts 
like muscovite and phlogopite and the dark variety biotite ; it builds 


sheets and thicker plates that attain a size up to 2 or 3 feet across. 
Its occurrence in pegmatite is the source of commercial mica, but 
the mineral has to be free of inclusions and checks to be of much 
value, which is very rarely the case in any of the Adirondack 

In addition to quartz, feldspar and mica, there are a great many 
minerals that occur in more or less abundance in the local pegma- 
tites. Some of the commoner ones are tourmaline, beryl, garnet, 
amphibole, magnetite, pyrite, apatite, zircon, titanite, lepidolite, 
chlorite, epidote and calcite ; of rare occurrence are monazite, xeno- 
time, autunite, dumortierite, molybdenite and allanite. The crys- 
tals of tourmaline and beryl may weigh many pounds. 

Pegmatites are quite variable in their composition, changing 
much more rapidly in that respect than granite. The proportions 
of feldspar and quartz fluctuate through all possible ranges, as may 
be seen in almost any of the larger bodies like those at Crown 
Point and Bedford, for exampk. A mass of practically solid f eld^ 
spar in one place gives way in a short distance to one of quartz or 
to a mixture of the two minerals. These fluctuations take place 
horizontally and vertically and often are the cause of much incon- 
venience if they do not seriously afifect the progress of quarrying, 
especially where it is aimed to secure a uniformity of products. 
In many quarries this feature seems to have been ignored at first, 
and the results of work consequently have not corresponded to 
expectations. There is need of careful investigation to determine 
the character and uniformity of the materials in each locality which 
should precede actual development. Bosses and large dikes of 
pegmatite extend downward into the earth for indefinite distances, 
usually much farther than they can be followed in open quarry 
operations. The lenses and veins are much less persistent, often 
pinching out abruptly. 

Pegmatite is associated with many of the granite areas in the 
Adirondacks and southeastern New York. In most of the granite 
quarries small irregular masses of the material are encountered, in 
some with such frequency as to impair the value of the product. In 
the larger occurrences the pegmatite may be left as a wall in the 
quarry. The irregular bodies which grade over into the granites 
are apparently not intrusive in the latter, but have resulted from 
crystallization of the magma in place, the coarse texture being due 
to the local presence of abundant water vapor and other mineraliz- 
ing agencies. The pegmatite is probably the last part of the mass 
to crystallize and represents the residue of magmatic material with 



an excess of the solvents or mineralizers squeezed out by the con- 
solidation of the surrounding granite. 

The larger bodies in the form of dikes or bosses represent real 
intrusions of much later age than the country rock. They occur in 
any kind of country rock, be it gneiss, schist or limestone. Con- 
sequently they are sharply deHmited on the borders, without any 
gradation as is observed in the segregated bodies. They are off- 
shoots of some granite mass which may be quite distant or not at all 
in evidence at the surface. All through the western Adirondacks, 
but particularly in St Lawrence county, dikes, veins and bosses of 
pegmatite occur intersecting the older gneisses, and schists, witt 
only here and there a body of granite in evidence that may be 
regarded as a source of the materials. It is very probable that much 
of this region is underlain by a great granite bathylith of which th( 
exposed granites and pegmatites are offshoots into the overlying 
rocks. The larger pegmatite bodies are often conspicuous feature; 
in the topography, as they are very resistant to erosion and tenc 
to form knobs and ridges. They are consequently most frequently 
encountered on the higher ground and when uncovered may b« 
visible for long distances, on account of their white color. 


Fig. 6 Map of the St Lawrence river granite quarries. I, Picton island; 2, Forsythe; 3, Kelly; 4, Webster quarries. 


Section 4 



Granite and granitic gneiss are exposed on several of the larger 
islands in the St Lawrence river, particularly in the stretch from 
Clayton to Alexandria Bay and over a considerable area on the 
adjacent mainland. They are outlying representatives of the 
Adirondack crystallines, though separated from the main area of 
the latter by an interval in which the surface formations consist 
mainly of undisturbed Paleozoic sediments. These rocks un- 
doubtedly covered the whole region at one time, but have been 
eroded away here and there so as to expose the underlying Pre- 
cambric basement. In contrast with the Adirondacks, the Pre- 
cambric area along the St Lawrence presents very little relief, for 
the most part being less than 100 feet above the river and much 
of it is quite flat. Suitable quarry sites are therefore not so com- 
mon in this section as in the interior highland where rocks of 
similar or identical character occur, but the region is favored by 
the facilities for water transportation which give access to the im- 
portant markets on the St Lawrence and Great Lakes at very low 

The most valuable quarry material in this section is the red 
granite of Grindstone, Picton and Wellesley islands, a product with 
which the name Thousand Island granite is popularly associated. 
It has had a fairly large sale for building and monumental purposes, 
taking rank with the best of the red granites from American 
quarries. In general it is a bright red, coarsely textured rock; but 
medium-grained and fine-grained varities also occur. It has a 
thoroughly massive appearance, and the grain is very uniform so 
far as relates to the product of a single quarry. 

The present exposures of this granite have been traced on the 
geological maps prepared by Gushing and others for the report 
on the " Geology of the Thousand Islands Region." ^ The granite 
extends from the central part of Wellesley island, where it is in 
contact with the older granitic gneiss series, to the western limits 
of that island, and reappears on Grindstone, of which it constitutes 

1 N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 145, 1910. The red granite lies mainly within 
the Grindstone quadrangle. 


the larger part. It also outcrops on the smaller islands between 
Wellesley and Grindstone, including Murray, Picton, and Bkiff 


Grindstone is an irregular, deeply indented island, about 5 miles 
long and 2 miles wide, lying nearly midway in the river, directly 
opposite Clayton. It is included in the Grindstone quadrangle of 
the United States Geological Survey. The island is low and thinly 
soiled, though it affords some good grazing and agricultural land. 
The principal settlement is Thurso on the north shore and near the 
western end. 

As shown on the geological map by Gushing and Smyth, the red 
granite occupies all the eastern and northern part of the island, but 
on the south and west gives way to the older Grenville and Lauren- 
tian gneiss series, into which, however, it sends offshoots that in 
places are of considerable magnitude. It is also not unmixed with 
these rocks, as inclusions of the Grenville schist and quartzite and 
of the lighter Laurentian granite are found within the interior of 
the red granite. These inclusions appear, however, to be arranged 
in definite belts and are not so generally distributed as to give 
trouble in quarry operations, if a little care is exercised in the 
selection of a site. Aside from these larger inclusions the granite 
shows a fair degree of uniformity. Occasional " knots " of darker 
color are noticeable in some of the quarries and seem to be in the 
nature of segregations. 

The principal quarry workings are in the vicinity of Thurso. For 
the last few years none of the quarries have been actively operated, 
though some stone is taken out occasionally on orders for building 
and monumental work. The period of greatest activity dates back 
fully fifteen years. In Smock's report' of 1888 it is stated that 
quarries had been opened at more than twenty different places on 
the island and that three large quarries were then in operation. 

General character and composition. The Grindstone Island 
granite usually has a coarse texture which is imparted by the abund- 
ant large feldspar individuals. It has, nevertheless, excellent polish- 
ing qualities, giving a fine and lustrous surface. The color is bright 
red for the polished surfaces but lighter on the rock face and very 
light on hammered work. The stone is therefore suitable for 
buildings in which a medium color effect is desired and at the same 
time is well adapted for monumental or interior work. 

The mineral composition of the granite is somewhat variable 

Plate 8 

Pink granite. Picton Island, St. Lawrence river 


?-. ^ 



»t vi^" ^-' 


*!• » -vi^J*. 




Red granite. Picton Island, St. Lawrence river 


according to locality, but in general it may be said that red feldspar 
constitutes about three- fourths of the whole, while quartz and 
biotite are next in abundance. The feldspar consists of microcline, 
microperthite, and oligoclase and shows some alteration. The 
quartz has a bluish or opaque white color. Along with the biotite 
there is some chlorite, evidently from alteration, and hornblende. 
The minor ingredients include magnetite, titanite, pyrite, zircon and 
apatite. The feldspar shows incipient decay, but is not materially 

The following chemical analysis is taken from Cushing's 
" Geology of the Thousand Islands Region." It is based on a 
sample from a quarry described as i mile southeast of Grindstone, 
perhaps referring to the Gordon quarry. The analysis is by E. W. 

SiO. 66.59 

AI2O3 14.54 

Fe203 2 . 42 

FeO 2.43 

MgO 1. 18 

CaO 2. IS 

NasO ;.. 3-o8 

K2O 5.62 

H2O 46 

TiO.o 81 

P2O5 40 

CI 03 

F 06 

S 08 

MnO ; 23 

BaO 17 


Laboratory tests. Acording to Smock, a representative specimen 
of the granite showed a specific gravity of 2.713, equivalent to a 
weight of 169 pounds to the cubic foot. The absorption was 1.55 
per cent of water. When subjected to a dilute solution of sulphuric 
acid, the loss was .13 per cent. No apparent change was caused 
by freezing and thawing, but exposure to a temperature of 1200°- 
1400° F. caused vitrification, destruction of color and impaired the 

A more elaborate test of the fire-resisting qualities of the granite 
was carried out by Mr W. E. McCourt. Two cubes tested to 550° 
C. with slow cooling remained unchanged, but one developed a few 


small cracks when rapidly cooled from that temperature. Cracks 
appeared in the cubes when heated to 850°, and under the flame and 
water test the granite was badly broken as was the case with all 
the cubes of igneous rocks that were subjected to that test. 

The absorption of 1.55 per cent as given by Smock seems to be 
erroneous, perhaps due to the shifting of the decimal point. So 
large a ratio is seldom found in any granite. Physical tests of the 
granites by the writer gave the following values : specific gravity 
2.71; ratio of absorption .171 per cent; pore space .462 per cent. 
In his " Building and Ornamental Stones of Canada," Parks in- 
cludes the following data for the Kingston granite which apparently 
is almost identical in composition with the Grindstone granite; 
specific gravity 2.68; ratio of absorption .119 per cent; pore space 
.319 per cent; crushing strength 30,421 pounds a square inch. 

Kelly quarry 

Most of the stone shipped from the island in recent years has 
come from the Kelly quarry. This is also known as the Chicago 
Granite Company's quarry. It was opened about 1883 and worked 
by that company for several years. The present owner is H. B. 
Kelly of Clayton. The quarry lies on the southern and western 
slopes of a hill which fronts the little bay reaching southward 
toward Thurso. It is opened in two benches with a total height 
of about 75 feet and a length of over 200 feet. The rock has a 
rather coarse grain and is thoroughly massive. The only defect is 
the presence of rounded inclusions, or knots, of darker, finer crys- 
talline rock which cause some waste in the quarrying of dimension 
stone. The jointing is not particularly well defined or regular. 
The principal courses are N. 75° E. and north-south, with less 
plainly marked series N. 35° E. and N". 50° W. The joints are 
widely spaced and permit the quarrying of blocks of large size. 
Sheeting is absent though there is an imperfect division along a 
plane which dips 15° or so to the north. 

The present equipment includes one 40-foot derrick. The ship- 
ping dock is a few hundred feet north of the quarry and connected 
by a tramway. The quarry lands compose about 5 acres. 

Paving blocks were the principal product made by the Chicago 
Granite Company. They were shipped chiefly to cities on the 
Great Lakes. Under the present ownership, monumental and build- 
ing stock are quarried on a small scale. Several buildings along 
the St Lawrence have been constructed of this granite. 


Forsythe quarry 

The Forsythe Granite and Marble Company of Montreal operated 
at one time a quarry just north of Thurtso and across the bay from 
the Kelly quarry. The shore on the west side of the bay rises 
abruptly 50 feet or more above the water, admitting of a good 
face directly at the shore line. The quarries extend north and south 
for about 200 feet. The rock is a little darker on the average than 
the granite of the Kelly quarry, but otherwise is very similiar. 
The joints are even more widely spaced and indefinite. The more 
persistent courses are N. 45° W. and N. 40° E. The grain runs 
parallel with the latter. Blocks can be obtained of size limited only 
by the means of handling. The presence of inclusions of darker 
color is the principal defect. There is a little pyrite noticeable in 
some of the rock, but it is too small in amount to exert any detri- 
mental effect in the durability or color of the stone. This is ap- 
parent in the freshness of the rock at the surface. 

The granite at this quarry shows two varieties of texture, the one 
being characterized by coarse feldspar crystals of from 10 to 15 
mm diameter and the other by medium-sized crystals of approx- 
imately 5 mm diameter. The former found employment for monu- 
mental and building stone and the latter for paving blocks. 

The quarry is probably the same as that described by Smock under 
the name of the Thousand Island Granite Company, and active at 
the time of his report. The quarry was opened about 1880. The 
product in the early years was mostly paving blocks and was 
shipped to western cities. Building and monumental stone were also 
shipped in quantity to Montreal. 

The Forsythe Granite and Marble Company, the last to operate 
the quarry, ceased work over ten years ago. There is no equip- 
ment of value remaining on the property. The shipping dock is 
directly at the quarry. The quarry is now owned by Miss Jennie 
Forsythe of Montreal. 

A sample of the polished granite from this locality is shown in 
the large columns that adorn the Senate Chamber of the New York 
State Capitol at Albany. These are said to have been quarried 
from near the surface. 

Other quarries near Thurso 

On the farm of W. L. Webster about one-half of a mile east of 
Thurso is a ledge of red granite, once worked by White and O'Brien. 
This quarry face is about 200 feet long and 20 feet high. The joint 
courses are well defined and run N. 60° E. and N. 30° W. There 


is a fairly developed sheeting which dips 15° S. or nearly parallel to 
the slope, and facilitates extraction of the blocks. This stone is a 
little darker and more finely textured than at the other quarries 
visited, due to the increased percentage of the biotite and horn- 

The quarry formerly worked by Gordon and Turcotte lies a little 
south of Thurso. It is perhaps the one described by Smock as 
situated about half i a mile from the northwest side of the island, and 
known as the Gordon quarry. This was then operated by the Inter- 
national Granite Company of Montreal. Gordon and Turcotte 
ceased work about twelve years ago. 

The Potter quarry, now owned by H. B. Kelly, lies about a mile 
southwest of Thurso and yields both red granite and a darker 
colored rock which is perhaps related to the Adirondack syenite 
but which was not seen in place. The latter stone is used for 
monumental work. The quarry has not been developed to any 
extent. The ledge is about 75 feet high and the quarry lands in- 
clude 10 acres. 


The 'Picton Island Red Granite Company 

The characteristic Thousand Island red granite is obtained at 
present in quantity only from Picton island, which yields medium- 
grained to fine-grained varieties as compared with the prevailing 
coarse granite of Grindstone island. Picton island lies about 3 
miles north of Clayton, between Grindstone and Wellesley islands ; 
it is called Robbins island on the United States Geological Survey s. 
map, though known locally by the former name. The quarries are 
on the northern end of the island, where the ledges rising directly 
from the shore Hne afford a face from 50 to 75 feet high, almost at 
the water's edge. There is little stripping or other preparation re- 
quired, and the stone is loaded directly on boats from the quarries 
for shipment to river and lake ports. Rail shipments are made from 
Clayton, where the company owns docks and yards close to the 

The Picton Island granite is a part of the same mass which out- 
crops over most of Grindstone Island and the southern end of 
Wellesley island. It is a closely textured, sound stone of attractive 
color, taking a lustrous polish and well suited for building and 
monumental work. Two varieties, medium-grained and fine- 
grained are obtained, the former having a bright red body flecked 


with black, and the latter a uniform pink tint in which there is 
little but the coloration of the feldspar noticeable. The pink granite 
finds special favor for monumental purposes. 

The company has two quarries in operation, of which the more 
northerly has been mainly worked and has yielded most of the stone 
of medium grain. The face here is about 300 feet long and 75 feet 
high. The vertical joints are rather widely spaced and run N. 45° E. 
and N. 35° W. The bed joints dip into the hill at an angle of 15° or 
more, causing some difficulty in loosening the blocks. Material of 
any size can be obtained. A small dressing and polishing works 
have been provided for turning out finished material. The granite 
had a well-marked rift and grain, so that excellent paving blocks 
can be obtained from the waste, but this product yields little profit at 
present owfng to the competition which has arisen from the quarries 
in the south with their cheaper labor. 

The more southerly quarry is in process of development. It has 
a face about 150 feet long and 50 feet high with a slope which will 
afford 25 feet or more additional height. The principal product is 
pink granite, though there is some red, medium-grained granite 
associated with it. About 10 or 15 feet of the surface rock is dis- 
colored by sap and has to be stripped before marketable material 
is obtained. The jointing here is irregular, with no predominant 
directions noticeable. 

A third quarry is situated between the others, but was not worked 
at the time of inspection. 

The company has a very complete equipment and can furnish 
rough and cut stone in almost any size and quantity. Some of the 
structures for which this stone has been used include the new por- 
tion of the American Museum of Natural History in New York, 
the National Bank Building in Clayton and the Maryland Museum 
Building in Baltimore (polished columns). The red granite suitable 
for polishing brings about $1.25 a cubic foot and the pink granite 
from $2 to $3 a cubic foot. 

General observations. The color effect of the red granite is 
very similar to that of the Grindstone Island granite. The polished 
surface is bright red. The rock face and hammered surfaces are 
lighter than the polished and give a pleasing warm tone when seen 
in structures. The contrast between hammered and polished work, 
as exhibited in monuments, is marked. 

The pink granite is considerably lighter than the red and, owing 
to its fine texture, appears to be of almost uniform body. When 


tooled the color is pinkish white, and letters and designs stand out 
prominently from the polished surface. The stone is especially- 
valuable for monuments. 

Mineral and chemical composition. The Picton Island granite 
is essentially a mixture of feldspar, quartz and biotite, with no 
marked differences as regards composition between the red and 
pink varieties. The textures are even and thoroughly massive. 
The red or medium-grained variety is composed of particles aver- 
aging 5 mm in diameter and the fine-grained of particles averaging 
fro'm I to 2 mm. The coloration is due to the feldspar ingredlients 
which contain minute inclusions of hematite, magnetite, hornblende, 
garnet, muscovite, titanite, apatite and pyrite are present in S'mall 
amounts. The pyrite is mostly limited to the joint surfaces and is 
so sparingly distributed as to exert no appreciable effect upon the 
durability and permanency of color of the granite. 

The following chemical analysis by W. S. Hall of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology is abstracted from a circular 
issued by the Picton Island Red Granite Company : 

SiOa 69.20 

AI2O3 13.80 

Fe^Os 5-28 

CaO 1. 51 

MgO .Tj 

K2O, Na^O 8.80 

S 04 

H2O and loss .60 

The composition is normal for granite, with the exception of 
the iron which is a little higher perhaps than is usual in most 
granites. This is explained by the rather abundant magnetite, in 
which form the iron can exert no detrimental effect. Although 
the potash and soda are not separated in the analysis, the former 
probably predominates as the feldspar is mostly microcline and 
orthoclase with subordinate plagioclase. Treatment with acetic 
acid failed to give any reaction for carbonates. 

Physical tests. According to information furnished by the com- 
pany, the granite has a specific gravity of 2.653. ^ cubic foot 
accordingly weighs 165.81 pounds, which is about the average for 
eastern granites. The crushing strength, as determined in a cube 
taken from the quarries when first opened, is 16,500 pounds a square 












inch. An absorption test on a 4-inch cube dried to constant weight 
and immersed in water for five days showed .023 grams of water 
absorbed for each square inch of surface. 

Specimens of the medium-grained and fine-grained granites 
from these quarries were submitted for testing to the bureau of 
research, State Department of Highways with the following results: 

Medium- Fine- 

Specific gravity 

Absorption, pounds a cubic foot 




An exposure of granite or granitic gneiss around Alexandria Bay 
has been of some importance in the quarry industry of the St Law- 
rence river region. It has furnished little building or monumental 
stone, but is chiefly valuable for paving material and rough work. 

The granite differs markedly in appearance from the granite 
quarried on Grindstone and Picton islands, having usually a finer 
grain, lighter color and a texture that in places is distinctly gneiss- 
oid. The occurrence is described by Gushing under the name of 
the Alexandria bathylith and is placed by him in the Laurentian 
gneiss group, older than the characteristic massive granite of the 
neighboring islands. The fine grain, as well as the gneissoid ap- 
pearance which it exhibits in some places, is a secondary feature 
superinduced by regional compression; occasional uncrushed rem- 
nants of larger crystals (mainly feldspar) are still in evidence. The 
composition is that of a typical granite, with feldspar, quartz and 
mica as the principal minerals, ranking in the order given. 

The granite extends for several miles north and south of Alex- 
andria Bay along the river. Few ledges suitable for quarry sites 
occur as the country is generally flat and the higher ground often 
is mantled by Potsdam sandstone which rests in horizontal beds 
upon the granite. Much of the rock, also, carries inclusions of 
darker color and is seamed with quartz and pegmatite. 

Quarry of J. Leopold & Company 

The principal quarry in the Alexandria granite is situated about 
one-half of a mile south of Alexandria Bay and belongs to J. Leo- 
pold & Gompany of New York. A knob of the granite rises lod 
feet or more above the river, forming the most conspicuous ele- 


vation in the vicinity. The bare rock is exposed on all sides of the 
knob which has a diameter in a northeast-southwest line of about 
one-fourth of a mile. A little bay sets in close to its base and 
forms a natural harbor accessible to river boats, which afford the 
only means of shipment. The main workings are on the east side 
where there is a cut 200 feet long. Smaller openings have been 
made on the top and north side. 

The granite is well jointed, the main courses being N. 30° W. 
and N. 60° E. An indefinite sheeted structure appears in places. 
The structure and situation facilitate quarry operations and the 
only drawback is incident to the somewhat variable character of 
the stone which unfits much of it for anything but rough work. 
Two shades of granite appear in the quarries, one having a light 
gray color and the other a pinkish tint. Both varieties have the 
same composition and texture. 

Microscopic examination. The appearance of the rock under 
the microscope is that of an originally rather coarse granite which 
has become finely textured through crushing and recrystallization. 
The process has not effected in this instance any noticeable parallel 
alignment of the minerals, but they show a compact arrangement 
conducive to strength. 

The mineral composition indicates a biotite-muscovite granite of 
normal character. The feldspar is mainly of the alkali kind repre- 
sented by microcline, microperthite and orthoclase supplemenited 
by more or less lime-soda feldspar which appears to be oligoclase. 
It carries quartz inclusions and has a broken corroded appearance. 
Ferric oxide distributed along the fracture and cleavage planes of' 
the feldspar is the coloring agent in the pink granite. The micas 
have only small representation and there is little magnetite or other 
accessory minerals. 

Physical and chemical tests. In response to a request, Messrs 
J. Leopold & Company contributed the following data relative to 
physical tests of the granite which were made by the division of 
tests, United States Department of Agriculture, in Washington. 
The specific gravity is 2.65, corresponding to a weight of 165 pounds 
a cubic foot. Three cubes approximately 3 inches on a side were 
tested. Cubes nio. i and no. 3 showed a strengtth of 17,780 pounds 
and 17,570 pounds respectively, for each square inch of cross sec- 
tion, or 20,860 and 22,220 pounds respectively for each square inch 
of bearing surface. Cube no. 2 resisted crushing to the breaking 
power of the machine. 

Quarry materials of new york 79 

The bureau of research, State Department of Highways, in its 
report for 1910 includes two tests of the Alexandria Bay granite, 
as follows : 

No. I No. 2 

Specific gravity 2 . 64 2 . 64 

Weight, pounds a cubic foot 165 165 

Absorption, pounds a cubic foot .17 .11 

Abrasion, French coefficient 20. 17.4 

Hardness 18.5 18. S 

Toughness 8. 10. 

A chemical analysis of the Alexandria granite, which is given in 
the Geology of the Thousand Islands Region, may be safely used in 
reference to the product of this quarry. The locality of the sample 
is given as one-fourth of a mile south of Alexandria Bay, thus in 
close vicinity to the quarry. The analyst is E. W. Morley. 

Si02 73- 10 

AI2O3 14.29 

FeaOs 1 . 04 

FeO 1 . 04 

MgO 53 

CaO 1. 18 

NaaO 3.08 

K.O 5.36 

H2O 61 

TiOa 18 

P2O5 03 

CI 03 

F 02 

S .02 

MnO 07 



The western section of the Adirondack region, within the 
boundaries of St Lawrence and Lewis counties, is a complex of 
gneisses, schists, crystalline limestones and igneous intrusions, 
affording a considerable variety of quarry materials that are but 
little utilized. The only quarry developments of any importance in 
fact are based on the crystalline limestones which occur in belts, 
principally on the outer edge of the area. From these limestones 
are obtained excellent grades of building and monumental marble, 
of which the Gouverneur marble is the best example, as well as 
material for lime, furnace flux and road construction. The silicate 
rocks have received meager attention from an economic standpoint, 


the only development consisting of temporary and small-scale 
operations to supply local needs in the way of road metal or founda- 
tion stone. 

In its topography the region is a plateau which slopes to the west 
and northwest, the surface broken by ridges and hills of incon- 
siderable altitude. The elevation of the interior ranges from about 
1500 to 2000 feet, while the outer border where the crystalline 
formations disappear beneath the Paleozoic sediments lies for the 
most part between the approximate limits of 400 and 700 feet, but 
is somewhat higher than that on the south. The interior is largely 
wilderness and accessible only in restricted districts where one or 
two branch railroads have been extended eastward from the main 
lines which skirt the borders. Of these, the Carthage & Adiron- 
dack Railroad belonging to the New York Central system is the 
more important and runs from Carthage at the contact of the 
Paleozoic strata with the Precambric complex in a direction north 
of east across the central part of the highland as far as Newton 
Falls near the outlet of Cranberry lake. The few small settlements 
that exist in the interior are mainly dependent upon lumbering and 
the summer visitor for support. There is little local demand for 
building material of permanent nature. 

Of the crystalline formations the gneisses and schists are most 
prominent, but massive rocks occur in several rather extensive 
areas. Granite, syenite and gabbro are the principal representa- 
tives of the igneous rocks. They constitute dikes, stocks, and 
larger irregular bodies that may be called bathyliths, all Precambric 
in age though widely separated no doubt in the intervals of in- 
trusion. The term " massive " is hardly applicable to their general 
field appearance since they often pass by insensible gradations 
from such condition into gneissoid and 'schistose phases, scarcely 
distinguishable from some of the country formations which are 
made up of an unresolved complex of gneisses and schists with the 
more characteristic members of the sedimentary or Grenville series, 
the latter including quartzose, mica and hornblende schists, amphi- 
bolites, grap'hiite schists, quartzites and crystalline limestones. 

The massive granites of this region have for the most part de- 
cided colors, ranging from pink to dark red in the different occur- 
rences, while the very light and gray shades are relatively uncom- 
mon. They are generally rather coarse in grain, but finer sorts occur 
as local modifications of the coarse rocks or in separate intrusions. 
The predominant reddish color is imparted by the feldspar of which 
the prevailing variety is microcline. Hornblende and biotite (both 


are usually present) constitute the dark ingredients most in evi- 
dence, but magnetite plays a more important part in the composi- 
tion than usual in such acid rocks. 

These red granites are perhaps the most available resource in 
the way of quarry material for general construction purposes within 
the interior of the western Adirondacks. They have a very wide 
distribution, with their gneissoid modifications covering a con- 
siderable but as yet undetermined area. In many places they do 
not show the uniformity of appearance or other qualities essential 
to architectural stone, particularly where the intrusions are small 
and, in the case of the larger bodies, along the contact zones which 
are often marked by inclusions, segregations and pegmatitic injec- 
tions. The best locations for quarries are found usually in the 
central part of the larger masses. 

In southern St Lawrence and northern Lewis counties occurs an 
extensive and practically unbroken area of the granite which is 
traversed for several miles by the Carthage & Adirondack Railroad. 
This is one of the more accessible exposures in the region and is 
described at some length in the following pages as the Fine-Pitcairn 
granite. Smaller outcrops are so numerous that there is little object 
in giving them individual mention. The section about Gouverneur 
and eastward of there toward Edwards contains many isolated 
knobs, and the schistose rocks in that vicinity are seamed and in- 
jected by granite in a way suggestive of the existence of a great 
underlying body of that rock. At Natural Dam, just west of 
Gouverneur, a quarry has been recently opened in a small bosslike 
intrusion for the supply of road metal. The rock is a massive 
hornblende-biotite granite, but too variable in composition and 
texture to be workable for architectural purposes. 

The syenite intrusions are of the usual Adirondack type, char- 
acterized mineralogically by the preponderance of feldspar which 
is normally of greenish to grayish green color, coarsely crystallized, 
and mainly the intergrowth of orthoclase and albite called microper- 
thite. The feldspar constitutes up to 90 per cent of the entire mass. 
The dark minerals are pyroxene, hornblende and magnetite, of 
which the last named occurs rather abundantly for a rock of syen- 
itic composition. Quartz is a very variable component. The pre- 
vailing dark color gives way to light shades of gray when the 
syenite has undergone granulation and recrystallization, and in 
some places to red which lends a certain similarity of appearance 
to the gneissoid granites. In such crushed phases there are always 


unreduced remnants of feldspar s:attered through the fine ground- 
jnass, as evidence of their derivation from an originally coarse- 
grained rock. 

The principal area of the syenite, thus far noted, lies on the 
western border of the Fine-Pitcairn granite bathylith, and has been 
described in some detail by C. H. Smyth, jr. There are smaller 
scattered areas in other parts of the western Adirondacks. The 
syenite is not well adapted for building stone on account of its 
prevailing dark color; moreover its tough unyielding nature in the 
mass ofifers difficulties in the way of extraction and cutting that 
would make the cost rather high. Its chief application seeins to 
be for crushed stone, for which purpose it is superior to the granite 
and compares very favorably with the best trap. As a monumental 
stone it does not appear to show nearly the density and fineness of 
grain that are found in the syenites of Clinton and Essex counties. 

Gabbro is not very common in this section and the occurrences, 
in part at least, seem to represent a basic, pyroxenic variety of the 
syenite. The few areas that have been noted up to the present 
time are in remote sections. They require little 'consideration, 
therefore, from an economic standpoint, though they may prove of 
some value as sources of material for local highway construction. 

Trap dikes are likewise of minor importance, the recorded occur- 
rences being few in number and of small size. 


In the towns of Fine and Pitcairn, southern St Lawrence county, 
is an area of massive granite which, though not delimited as yet 
or shown on any of the published geological maps, must rank with 
the large granite exposures in the Adirondacks. By reason of its 
situation and adaptability to economic 'development this granite 
seems worthy of more than passing mention. So far apparently 
it has not been used for any purpose and its existence came to 
the writer's knowledge only through visits made several years since 
to the magnetic iron ore localities in its vicinity. The occurrence 
was revisited in the summer of 191 1 when the section along the 
Carthage & Adirondack Railroad was examined with some care 
and samples taken for further study. 

In places the granite possesses qualities as to physical structure, 
composition and appearance that seem to fulfil the requirements of 
a good architectural stone which could be employed very generally 

Plate 10 

■i ir 'la^-iM*- " -- * 

Pink granite. Pine Island, Orange county 

Red granite. Grindstone, St. Lawrence river 



for foundation and construction work. Some variations, notably 
the coarse pink and white porphyritic phase, might find use for 
monumental stone. The convenient situation in regard to railroad 
facilities is an advantage not possessed by most of the localities 
where granite of similar character is exposed in the Adirondacks. 
The section as measured along the winding route of the railroad 
extends about 8 miles in a general east and west direction. The 
first exposure on the west is near railroad milestone 56, which refers 
to Sacketts Harbor as the initialpoint, and the eastern border where 
the granite gives way to a well-foliated gneiss may be taken ap- 
proximately at milestone 64, but is not sharply defined. The distance 
from Carthage, an important railroad center, is 25 miles, and from 
Watertown 40 miles. 


Fig. 7. Sketch map of the section along the Carthage and Adirondack 
Railroad from Natural Bridge to Oswegatchie 

The exposures occur on both sides of the railroad in a series of 
ridges and hills that lend a rugged aspect to the topography though 
they seldom rise over 200 or 300 feet above the valley bottoms. 
They have no definite structural trend, in contrast with the regular 
north-east-south-west alignment of the ridges and valleys underlain 
by the older gneisses. The hills are more or less rounded, often 
hummocky on the summits, but there is little evidence of profound 


glacial erosion. The ice apparently has performed most of its work 
in removing whatever weathered and disintegrated material may 
have accumulated on the surface in the long interval between its 
advent and the exposure of the granite to atmospheric agencies. 
Since the Glacial period the rock has hardly been affected by 
weathering; fresh unstained samples may be secured from the 
natural ledges. Over much of the area the hill slopes have been 
denuded of their former soil and drift covering, as the result of 
recent forest fires exposing the surface to rapid erosion, so that the 
granite nearly everywhere is well exposed. 

On the western boundary the granite is in direct contact with 
the great syenite intrusion of the Diana-Pitcairn area that has been 
mapped and described by C. H. Smyth, jr. The contact where 
crossed by the railroad lies just west of milestone 56. The syenite 
here has a very basic composition, containing much magnetite and 
dark silicates, with a coarse texture. It is much like gabbro in 
9,ppearance. The contact of the two intrusives is not clean-cut, 
sharply dividing one from the other, but over a considerable dis- 
tance both granite and syenite occur in alternating sekms and patches 
or as interlaced bands. In the hasty examination of this mixed 
zone nothing definite could be learned as to the time relations of 
the two intrusions. The granite, however, is in general the most 
massive. The stretch from contact to about milestone 57 on the 
western border consists of gneissoid granite with a marked parallel- 
ism in the arrangement of the light and dark minerals and rather 
finely granular texture. The ledges between milestones 57 and 60 
reveal the granite in thoroughly massive or indistinctly gneissoid 
condition and rather coarse in grain. The color is red, pink or 
sometimes mottled by the appearance of white feldspar in addition 
to the colored variety. One phase seen near milestone 59 shows 
porphyritic red feldspar in white groundmass of feldspar and 
quartz, specked with black hornblende crystals. At Jayville, a 
former iron-mining locality, situated near the middle of the area, 
there appears a considerable body of black hornblende gneiss which 
seems to have been caught up by the granite on its way to the 
surface and is possibly a part of the older Grenville series. It is 
in this gneiss that the magnetite bodies are found. The next ledge 
beyond Jayville consists of the normal red granite which continues 
to milestone 61 where a white granular gneiss with rusty streaks 
outcrops for a short distance. These are the only large inclusions 



noted within the section traversed. On the eastern border between 
milestones 62 and 64 the granite becomes finer in texture, evidently 
the result of granulation superinduced by pressure metamorphism, 
but maintains its normal composition and for the most part its 
massive habit. 

With the exception of the two large bodies of gneiss that prob- 
ably represent included masses of the older Grenville rocks, the 
area where traversed is quite bare of inclusions or contrasting ma- 
terial of all kinds. The most common variations are produced by 
segregated stringers of quartz and pegmatite, but these have a very 
limited development. In general, the granite shows much uniform- 
ity, the changes of texture or appearance taking place very gradu- 

The ledges are intersected usually by widely spaced joints, of 
which the vertical ones are in two series crossing at high angles 
so as to produce heavy blocks. Dimension stone of any commercial 
size could be obtained in most of the ledges. 

The extent of the outcrop along the railroad, the only part where 
a complete traverse has been made, indicates that the granite covers 
a very large area. It extends no doubt for considerable distances 
to the north and south. Exposures of red, somewhat gneissoid 
granite of similar character have been noted by the writer in the 
northern part of Fine township and in the Cranberry lake region. 
Smyth mentions the occurrence of red hornblende gneiss in northern 
Lewis county which he states shows massive phases at many places 
and resembles as a whole a slightly modified hornblende granite. 
This may represent the southern continuation of the area under 
consideration ; at any rate it may belong to a common magmatic 

Microscopic examination. A study of thin sections from sam- 
ples taken at different places within the area shows the rock to 
belong to the hornblende-biotite granites, with the two dark min- 
erals in about equal proportions or with the hornblende pre- 
dominant. They are, however, of subordinate importance to the 
feldspars and quartz, and in composition the stone ranks with the 
acid class in which the silica amounts to 70 per cent or more, as 
is confirmed by the results of chemical analyses. The feldspar in- 
gredients include microperthite and microcline which lend the red- 
dish color to the mass and a variable but minor quantity of plagio- 
clase, mostly oligoclase. Quartz is plentiful. In the more massive 


types of the granite it occurs in rather large individuals having 
one or more crystal boundaries and to some extent as an inter- 
growth with the feldspar. Magnetite represents the principal iron 
ore, and no pyrite could be found in the sections. Apatite and 
zircon are among the accessory minerals. 

The sample taken from the surface reveals little weathering or 
decomposition that is detrimental to the appearance and strength 
of the stone. There is no sap or iron stain in any amount and 
the effects of exposure to the elements are mainly noticeable in the 
clouded appearance of the feldspars and the conversion of a part 
of the ferromagnesian silicates into chlorite. 

In regard to texture the granite shows considerable variation 
from place to place, though within narrower limits it maintains a 
degree of uniformity that makes possible the production of an 
even grade of material. The coarse phase is thoroughly massive, 
sometimes faintly gneissoid, and has a semiporphyritic appearance, 
with feldspars measuring from .5 to i inch diameter in a fine ground- 
mass of feldspar, quartz, hornblende and mica. Another variety has 
an even granular texture, ranging from medium -to coarse. Still 
other types show quite marked gneissoid and cataclastic textures 
as the result of pressure metamorphism, more apparent on the edges 
of the area. 

Chemical analyses. The chemical composition of the granite 
is fairly exhibited in the following analyses made from the samples 
taken at different places along the line of the Carthage & Adirond'ack 
Railroad. They reveal the essential ingredients in their respective 
proportions, but do not give the less important ones like manganese, 
zirconium and phosphorus which have little or no influence upon the 
general character of the granite. The summary consequently falls 
somewhat short in each case of the full amount. The analyses were 
made by R. W. Jones, of the Museum staff 











99.66 98.66 98.14 

No. I 

No. 2 

No. 3 





14. II 











1. 10 


1. 61 









• 53 




Plate 12 

Porphyritic granite. Jayville, St Lawrence county 


Sulphur was tested for, but not found. Analysis i represents 
the coarse massive granite from milestone 59. Analysis 2 is based 
on the finer grained massive rock from milestone 62. No. 3 relates 
to a sample taken from near the eastern edge of the area at mile- 
stone 64, which shows a strong cataclastic texture. 

Physical tests. The following tests of the coarse and fine sorts 
of the granite from Jayville were made in the laboratories of the 
State Museum. The samples were taken from the natural outcrop. 

Specific gravity 2 . 70 2 . 63 

Weight, pounds a cubic foot 168.5 164. i 

Ratio of absorption, per cent .31 . 264 

Pore space .99 .69 


The syenite intrusion, previously mentioned as forming the west- 
ern boundary of the red granite in southern St Lawrence county, 
needs only brief description in this place. It can not be considered 
to offer opportunity for the extraction of building materials on a 
large scale, though the massive phases of the rock are well adapted 
for highway and concrete material. The somber color which is 
generally characteristic of this rock in the Adirondack exposures 
is unsuited to most architectural purposes. 

The syenite area is well shown on the large geological map of 
the State. Its boundaries were traced by C. H. Smyth, jr, who 
has also given a detailed account of its geological and petrographical 
features in his paper on " Crystalline Rocks of the Western Adiron- 
dack Region." ^ The intrusion extends in a northeast, southwest 
direction across the townships of Diana, Lewis county, and Pitcairn, 
St Lawrence county, for a distance in all of 20 miles. Its width is 
usually less than 5 miles and its area may be estimated at not less 
than 75 square miles. The Carthage & Adirondack Railroad, after 
passing out of the red granite near milestone 56, crosses the north- 
ern part of the syenite intrusion and enters the limestone belt on 
the west just beyond Harrisville. The railroad again follows the 
syenite for some distance in the stretch from Bonaparte lake to 
Natural Bridge, near the southern end of the intrusion. 

The syenite is grayish green to dark green, heavy and very tough 
rock composed largely of feldspar but containing considerable 

IN. Y. State Museum Report 51, v. 2, 1S99. 



amounts of the ferromagnesian minerals and magnetite. The 
coarser, massive phase, which may be regarded as the original type, 
is only occasionally observed in the field, for the whole mass seems 
to have undergone more or less granulation and recrystallization 
from pressure metamorphism. This circumstance indicates an 
earlier period of intrusion for the syenite as compared with the red 
granite of the same region, though the contact relations where 
observed did not afford any definite evidence in that particular. 

Microscopic examination. The feldspar is principally a microper- 
thitic intergrowth of orthoclase and albite, with a little acid plagio- 
clase. In many places the feldspar constitutes over 80 per cent of 
the entire rock. A deep green pyroxene is usually observable in 
small, irregularly bounded individuals with which a darker horn- 
blende is often associated in a manner suggestive of its derivation 
from the pyroxene. Quartz and magnetite are important accessory 
minerals, the former being particularly abundant in the more 
foliated varieties. Zircon and titanite also occur and the presence 
of a little pyrite may usually be observed. 

Fig. 8. Microscopic appearance of syenite from near Harrisville. Shows 
groundmass of crushed feldspar, with larger fragments of the original crystals, 
also a little pyroxene and magnetite 

The syenite often has a porphyritic appearance as the result of 
crushing which has reduced all but a small remnant of feldspar to 
a fine, granular aggregate. The texture is seldom perfectly mas- 

Chemical analysis. The chemical character of the syenite is 
illustrated by the following analyses. No. i is of a sample taken 
from the eastern contact near milestone 56 on the Carthage & 

No. I 

No. 2 





















Adirondack Railroad (R. W. Jones, analyst). No. 2 is quoted from 
Smyth's paper: 











99-46 99-71 

Sulphur is not shown, though present in small amount. 

Physical tests. A sample of the syenite from milestone 55 
Carthage & Adirondack Railroad, was tested in the laboratories 
of the State Department of Highways : Specific gravity, 2.705 ; 
weight, pounds a cubic foot, 169; absorption, pound's a cubic foot, 
.07; hardness, 18. i, toughness, 15. Tests by the writer showed 
ratio of absorption .148 per cent, pore space .402 per cent. 


A monumental and structural granite has been quarried at Parish- 
ville in eastern St Lawrence county. It has a dark red fine-grained 
body in which appear curved and branching veinlets of bright red 
colors and somewhat coarser grain, but of the same mineral compc- 
sitions as the rest. The veining is not sharply defined but shades 
off on the borders and in places develops into round or irregular 
nuclear patches which give the effect of clouds of lighter color. 
The appearance of polished surfaces is attractive as it is quite rare 
among stones of this class. The variation in grain is not the result 
of pegmatitic injection, but of different conditions of crystallization 
during a period of resoftening of the rock. The granite belong.? to 
the Adirondacks granite gneisses and is composed of feldspar, 
biotite and quartz, the last in rather small amount, with some horn- 
blende, magnetite and zircon and a little chlorite. 

Crushing tests on the granite made at the Clarkson School of 
Technology at Potsdam showed an ultimate resistance of 20,000 


pounds to the square inch. The chemical composition, as determined 
by L. K. Russell is as follows : 

Si02 66.78 

AI2O3 13.01 

FeaOs 6.50 

MgO .92 

CaO 1. 31 

NasO, K2O 10.89 

H.0 51 

Total 99.92 

The quarry is owned by the St Regis Red Veined Granite Co., 
and the output thus far has been mainly monumental stock. 

The eastern Adirondack region, or so much of the highland as 
is included in the Lake Champlain drainage area convenient to 
rail and water transportation, is made up largely of igneous rocks 
belonging to the class of anorthosite, gabbro, syenite and granite. 
Their intrusion took place in Precambric time before the final 
stages of uplift and metamorphism that profoundly modified the 
region during that period had been accomplished. Laminated gneis- 
soid characters are very common; in fact there are comparatively 
few localities where the igneous rocks show unchanged, massive 
structure. The existence of unreduced or slightly modified residuals 
affords a basis for quarry operations in connection with building 
and monumental stone of the best quality, while there is an un- 
limited supply of material suited to many purposes for which abso- 
lute uniformity of texture or an attractive appearance is not es- 

Rocks of the anorthosite class are most widespread in this section 
of the Adirondacks. They have a very simple mineral composition, 
consisting almost wholly of basic plagioclase feldspar, usually labra- 
dorite and in their unaltered phase are characterized by very dark 
colors. The anorthosites spread over most of Essex county as a 
single, practically unbroken, area that embraces all the more prom- 
inent Adirondack peaks within its borders. They extend in force 
westward into Franklin county, but have little representation in 
Clinton county, the southern border of which is nearly coincident 
with the northern limits of the main area. An outlying intrusion 
of small compass occurs, however, in Beekmantown and Altona 
townships of Clinton county about 30 miles north of the county 





In "their typical development the anorthosites are too coarse in 
texture and too dark in color to find favor as building materials. 
Much of the interior part of the area is made up of this very coarse 
type. Along the borders they are usually finely textured owing to 
secondary crushing, and their color then becomes lighter if not 
influenced by an abnormal proportion of iron-bearing minerals. 
Some variations of this border phase present a uniform, even 
granular appearance, closely resembling in mass a true granite with 
which the anorthosite compares favorably as regards durability and 

Few quarries have been opened in the anorthosite and these are 
situated in the northeastern part which is most accessible to the 
lake. Old quarry sites exist on Splitrock mountain between West- 
port and Essex village and near Keeseville. Some work has been 
done, also, on the small outlier in Beekmantown and Altona town- 
ships, Clinton county. More recently attention has been given to 
the locality near Ausable Forks, where there is an area underlain 
by uniform light-colored anorthosite. 

The syenites and granites of this section are found in smaller in- 
trusions in the midst of gneisses which surround the anorthosite. 
Both classes show a tendency toward laminated structures and on 
that account have limited quarry possibilities. The syenite is dark 
green, while the granite is mostly a red variety. A local develop- 
ment of massive syenite that occurs at Ausable Forks on the border 
of the anorthosite, has recently come into prominence as a source 
of monumental stone. The red granite has been quarried only to 
a small extent. 

The gabbros have little importance economically except as possible 
sources of supply of road metal for which the massive types would 
appear to be excellently adapted by reason of their usually tough, 
firm nature. They form small intrusive knobs in the gneisses and 
also are found quite commonly in the anorthosite area. 

In this connection mention may be made of the diabase dikes 
which occur all over the region, and are particularly abundant in 
southern Clinton county. Like the other igneous rocks that have 
been mentioned they are of Precambric age, though they. show no 
effects of pressure metamorphism and must have been intruded in 
very late Precambric time. They seldom attain a workable size, 
the average thickness being not more than 10 or 15 feet. For 
road-making they offer the best material to be had anywhere, but 
so far no very accessible dikes of large size have been found. 




The vicinity of Ausable Forks, about 15 miles west of Lake 
Champlain and 24 miles by rail southwest of Plattsburg, presents 
many advantages for quarry operations in connection with both 
anorthosite and syenite. For several years past a considerable quan- 
tity of monumental stone has been shipped from this section and 
recently additional developments with a view to the extraction of 
building stone in a large way, as well as monumental stock, have 
been planned. 

The main anorthosite intrusion of the central Adirondacks ex- 
tends from the south to within a short distance of the confluence of 
the east and west branches of the Ausable river, where the village is 

^_l I— I I— j I— I [— I I 


Fig. 9 Map of the quarry section about Ausable Forks. i-S are quarries 
in green syenite; 6 is anorthosite quarry 





situated. The rock outcrops in a series of low hills and ridges 
which are mostly bare of soil and afford natural quarry sites. It 
is of medium to light gray color as seen in exposures, or in rough 
dressed surfaces, about the equivalent of a gray granite, for which 
it serves well as a general building material. The anorthosite be- 
longs, of course, to the border phase of the intrusion, characterized 
by a granulated feldspar ground mass with rather more than the 
usual percentage of dark silicates. 

The syenite which is quarried principally for monumental pur- 
poses occupies an area between the anorthosite on the south and 
the red gneisses that extend over most of the county immediately 
north of the Ausable river. It outcrops in the first ridges just 
north of the village, and also on the west side of Ragged mountain 
on the south bank and in the triangle formed by the two forks of 
the Ausable. The different exposures belong very likely to a single 
boss of the syenite which has forced itself up along the gneiss- 
anorthosite contact. The rock is of medium grain, massive. In 
color it varies from dark to very dark green as seen on rock face 
and polished surfaces, but grayish green on hammered work. Its 
perfect polishing qualities and ability to take the finest tracing which 
it shows in strong relief, combine to make it one of the most attrac- 
tive monumental stones on the market. 

The Moore quarry 

The syenite quarries are located on both sides of the river. Those 
on the north side are situated along the ridge that lies a little 
distance from the town and north of the railroad. The Moore 
quarry is near the base of the ridge which rises steeply at first so 
as to afford a good working face of lOO feet or more, and then 
more graidually to the summit which is over 400 feet above the 
railroad. There is practically no soil covering on the rock and 
weathering has produced no more than a slightly bleached layer, 
which at a few inches depth passes into the normal rock. No sap 
or stain is apparent. The rock is broken into large blocks by two 
vertical joint courses running N. 40° E. and N. 50° W. An in- 
clined course cuts across these in a direction N. 20° W. and dips 
45° northeast, in conformity with the surface slope, giving the 
effect of a sheeted structure. The rock is said to split easiest in a 
direction parallel to the inclined joint systems. Several trap dikes 
from 10 inches to 2 feet thick intersect the ledge in a northeast- 
southwest direction. They have exerted little contact effect upon 
the syenite and in some respects are an advantage to the quarry 


work, as they form a natural back from which the rock may be 
broken away. 

The syenite is medium to fine in texture, the feldspar which 
composes the greater part of the mass ranging from 5 mm down to 
2 mm in diameter. The color in the quarry is bright green to 
yellowish green, and of polished surfaces a lustrous dark green 
that appears nearly black when seen from a distance. The stone 
from this quarry is sold under the name of " Adirondack green 

The quarry was first opened by Moore Brothers of Barre, Vt. 
It was later taken over by the Adirondack Granite Co., a consolida- 
tion of several quarry properties in the vicinity of Ausable Forks. 
Recently it has been worked under lease by J. H. Moore. 

Microscopic examination. The composition of the syenite is 
about 75 per cent of feldspar and 25 per cent of other ingredients, 
including pyroxene, quartz, magnetite and zircon. The feldspar 
consists of microcline, microperthite and oligoclase, all in stout 
prisms with interlocking borders. The microperthite is very abun- 
dant and affords beautiful examples of this peculiar intergrowth, 
the alternating bands of microcline and albite being unusually large. 
The pyroxene has an emerald green color and is strongly pleochroic. 
Zircon is quite abundant. There is very little evidence of altera- 
tion among the minerals, but some secondary limonite has been 
deposited along the sutures and pores, probably filtering in from 
the surface. The feldspar and quartz are crossed by microscopic 
fractures in the direction of the grain similar to those found in 
granites, but smaller in dimensions and less abundant. No sulphides 
were observed in the sections. 

Physical tests. The syenite from this quarry has a specific 
gravity of 2.71, or a weight of 169 pounds to the cubic foot. The 
crushing strength is 14,734 pounds a square inch. The ratio of 
absorption is .155 per cent or .26 pounds to the cubic foot. 

Ausable Granite Company's quarry 

The first syenite in the Ausable Forks area was quarried from 
the ridge a little east of the Moore quarry by the Ausable Granite 
Company, later consolidated with the Adirondack company. The 
quarry has not been operated for the last few years, as the other 
localities offer better advantages for extracting stone of uniform 
grade. The general character of the rock, however, is very similar 
to the material in the Moore quarry. The quarry supplied both 
monumental and building stock in limited quantity. 


I— I 
















5 t"! 

U cu 

ri n 

- O 

cj o 




The Charles Clements quarry 

The Charles Clements quarry is situated south of the Ausable on 
the shoulder of Ragged mountain, overlooking the village of Ausable 
Forks. It yields a fine-grained syenite of darker color than that 
from north of the river, though it is no doubt a part of the same 
intrusion. The quarry is opened as a pit and thus is worked to 
some disadvantage, though the depth is not sufficient as yet to 
complicate the operations. The quarry belongs to Charles Clements, 
a dealer in monumental stone, of Boston, v^ho has shipped the 
product in the rough. 

Microscopically, the syenite in the area south of the river differs 
considerably from the type described under the Moore quarry. The 
syenite here is evidently a border phase of the intrusive mass, 
characterized by fine grain, and a larger percentage of the dark 
constituents, with reaction minerals like garnet. Owing to its fine 
texture, it splits with a smooth or conchoidal fracture like a trap. 
Along with the increase of the ferromagnesian minerals there is a 
gain also in lime-soda feldspar which shares importance with the 
alkali varieties. It is a basic phase of the syenite which in other 
places in the Adirondacks may be observed to grade over into a 

The texture of the rock is even-grained, massive, showing no 
trace of the gneissoid arrangement that often accompanies the basic 
gradations. The jointing is at wide intervals and almost any size 
of block can be quarried. There is no well-developed sheet struc- 
ture, but a series of unequally spaced bed joints is present. 

The Carnes quarries 

The Carnes quarries, owned by F. G. Carnes of West Chazy, are 
situated about one-half of a mile south of Ausable Forks on the 
western continuation of the Ragged mountain exposure. They are 
not as yet developed for supplying large quantities of stock, but have 
been opened sufficiently to prove that there is material of good 
quality. One quarry, called the Keystone, lies at the base of the 
mountain, between the highway and the river. It yields a green 
syenite of lighter shade than that from higher up the mountain. 
The quarry lands in this location cover 35 acres. 

On the opposite side of the East branch the syenite appears again 
along the slopes of a low ridge that is partly covered with terraced 
sand deposits. The Emerald quarry is situated in this exposure. 
The ledge affords a face from 15 to 25 feet high and about 400 feet 
long. There is in all 300 acres in the property. The syenite is 


intersected by widely spaced block joints. It is a dark green rock 
of fine texture. It takes an excellent polish and is well suited for 
monumental stone. 

Under the microscope the syenite from the latter quarry presents 
some peculiarities not noted in the other occurrences. The chief 
feature is connected with the ferromagnesian minerals which con- 
sist mainly of a dark hornblende in the place of the usual green 
diopside, and a smaller proportion of an orthorhombic pyroxene 
that corresponds to hypersthene. Quartz is more abundant than 
usual for syenite, occurring in small grains on the borders and in 
the interior of the feldspars. The latter comprise microperthite, 
microcline and oligoclase. The accessory constituents include 
magnetite, zircon, apatite and titanite. The secondary products of 
alteration are mostly chlorite, which is observed on the borders of 
the hornblend'e, and limonite. The texture is even-granular massive. 


In the last few years some attention has been given to the quarry- 
ing of anorthosite for building and monumental stone in the vicinity 
of Ausable Forks. The anorthosite outcrops on the road from 
Ausable Forks to Jay, beginning just south of the Stickney bridge 
along the ridges that limit the valley on either side. 

The anorthosite belongs to the granulated type in which the 
originally coarse feldspar crystals are only now and then evidenced 
by unmashed individuals which in their surroundings of fine-grained 
material appear like the phenocrysts in a porphyry. The color is 
gray of light or medium tone while the uncrushed feldspars have 
a dark greenish or bluish appearance and an iridescent play of 
color. Some types contain much pyroxene, which is black in the 
hand specimen ; the stone then is similar in appearance to a medium- 
grained or coarse-grained granite. 

Most of the stone has been shipped from a quarry situated one- 
half of a mile southeast of the Stickney bridge, formerly worked 
by the Adirondack Granite Co. It is a small opening with a 
face about 20 feet high, but the ledge extends fully 500 feet with a 
face 50 feet high. The stone from this quarry was used in the 
two first stories of the Locomotive Engineers Building in Cleveland, 
Ohio, and in the Adirondack National Bank Building at Saranac 

The rock is traversed at rather wide intervals by two sets of 
vertical joints running N. 50° W. and N. 35° E. respectively. There 
is a less marked division in a plane inclined about 30° from the 

Plate 16 


Gray granite ( Anorthosite). Ausable Forks 

Green syenite. Ausable Forks 


horizontal. It possesses a marked rift and grain structure which 
follows the direction of the vertical joint systems and which has 
already been described in the earlier discussion of that structure. 
Blocks of any merchantable size can be quarried : one containing 
about 6000 cubic feet was exposed in the course of operations in 

The same character of rock extends eastward from this opening 
on to the Loren Williams place, between the North Jay and Stickney 
Bridge roads, where there is a very extensive exposure and the 
outcrop is found on the sides and top of the knob next south of 
the quarry opening, but the rock here has a coarser texture with a 
larger proportion of uncrushed feldspar. 

Microscopic examination. Thin sections of the anorthosite ex- 
amined under the microscope reveal its simple mineral character. 
It is mainly feldspar of one kind, a basic plagioclase corresponding 
to labradorite in optical properties. The individuals have been 
broken down to small grains 2 or 3 mm in diameter, which are 
interlocked, however, as thoroughly as the components of any 
granite. Effects of compression are also evidenced by strain 
shadows in the larger residual crystals. The feldspar shows some 
alteration to mica around the borders, but otherwise is fresh. The 
dark constituents are hornblende and pyroxene, frequently inter- 
grown and showing irregular boundaries. There is a little magnetite 
or ilmenite in fine particles, but no pyrite. 

Physical tests. The results of physical tests indicate that the 
anorthosite meets all practical requirements for a building stone. 
The crushing strength measured on a tube tooled down but not 
polished was 14,735 pounds a square inch, or equal to that of an 
average granite. The specific gravity is 2.75, or a little heavier than 
granite, corresponding to a weight of 172 pounds to the cubic foot. 
The absorption is low, with a ratio of .127 per cent. The hardness, 
according to the tests of the bureau of research. State Department 
of Highways, is 17.6 and the toughness 6. Another sample of 
anorthosite from Ausable Forks, locality unspecified, showed the 
following results: specific gravity 2.74; abrasion (French coeffi- 
cient) 10.5; hardness 18.7; toughness 10. 

Red granite, Ausable Forks 

An outcrop of granite on the Clintonville road 2 miles east of 
Ausable Forks has afforded a limited quantity of monumental 
stone of which some has been used locally and the rest shipped to 

pS i^EW Yoktc stAT:^ Museum 

dealers. The rock is an interesting type, as it belongs to the true 
granites, being composed of feldspar and quartz in normal pro- 
portions, but on the other hand contains no dark silicates of the 
mica, amphibole or pyroxene families. In the place of such min- 
erals, however, it carries a large amount of magnetite which ordin- 
arily is a very minor consitituent O'f granite. This mineral con- 
stitutes about 15 per cent of the entire rock, its relative abundance 
more than compensating for the absence of iron-magnesia silicates 
in effect upon the specific gravity. The latter is 2.8 which cor- 
responds to a weight of 175 pounds to the cubic foot, which is very 
high for granite. The color is purplish brown to dark red. The 
grain is regular and fine, the average diameter of the quartz and 
feldspar grains being under 2 mm. The appearance of the polished 
surfaces is attractive. 

The quarry is a small opening with a face of about 12 feet. It 
is on property owned by Mrs Beane of Ausable Forks. 


The anorthosite exposures in the vicinity of Keeseville near Lake 
Champlain, have been the source of fairly large quantities of build- 
ing and monumental material. The rock is mostly the light, granu- 
lated variety that characterizes the peripheral zone of the great 
Adirondack mass. The stone has been sold under the name of 
Ausable granite. 

Prospect Hill quarries 

The Prospect Hill quarries are situated on the northern and 
western slopes of that prominence, a rounded knob 300 feet or more 
high, lying just south of Keeseville. The northerly quarries once 
belonged to the Ausable Granite Co., and, are mentioned by Smock 
as in active operation at the time of his investigation in the period 
1880-90. The company also operated a dressing and monumental 
works at Keeseville. 

The stone of these quarries is medium to coarse in texture, de- 
pending on the relative proportion of the granulated and residual 
uncrushed feldspar, and has a gray color. The rock surfaces show 
glacial striations and polishing, but are almost unaffected by weather- 
ing influences. 

Smock describes two cjuarries as operative, a lower one to the 
north producing a coarse variety, and an upper quarry about 20 
rods south of the former and higher up the hill, each equipped with 
a single derrick. The quarrying of dimension stone must have been 

Plate 17 

fi" 4 y*^f- 

Gray granite (Anorthosite). Keeseville 

Green granite (Anorthosite;. Keeseville 


expensive, as the jointing is irregular in regard to direction and 
spacing. The principal uses of the stone appear to have been in 
monumental and decorative work. It was employed in the trim- 
mings of the Y. M. C. A. building in Burlington, and also in the 
interior decoration of a Philadelphia church, but had the widest 
sale for monuments, of which there are many specimens in the 
cemeteries of that vicinity. A local example of its use in buildings 
is found in the French Catholic church at Keeseville, which, how- 
ever, was constructed mainly of the quarry waste. At the time the 
quarries were worked, the branch railroad from Port Kent to 
Keeseville had not been built and all the stone had to be hauled to 
the lakeside by teams. 

G. P. Merrill in his " Stones for Building and Decoration " 
speaks of the Keeseville stone as " admirably adapted for polished 
columns, pilasters, and other decorative work." But he also re- 
marks that the material in some places shows minute fractures 
which may prove detrimental to its weathering qualities. 

Physical tests. The stone is credited by Smock with a crushing 
strength of 29,000 pounds to the square inch, which is higher than 
the average. The specific gravity is around 2.75, indicating a weight 
of 175 pounds to the cubic foot. Ratio of absorption, .066 per cent. 

Empire State Granite Company's quarries 

The Empire State Granite Co. has been engaged recently in 
the development of quarry lands to the west of Keeseville, near the 
Clintonville road, on property owned by George W. Smith of 
Keeseville. The company has also an area on the west side of 
Augur lake which it has prospected to some extent. 

The anorthosite in this section shows more uniformity of char- 
acter than that on Prospect hill and its structural features are better 
adapted for quarry operations^ It is traversed usually by two series 
of vertical joints crossing at right angles. A horizontal series is 
also present. It splits readily with plug and feathers in two direc- 
tions which correspond to rift and grain in granite. Dimension 
stone and paving blocks can be quarried without more difficulty 
probably than with ordinary granites. The joints show very little 
sap and the stone is practically fresh from the surface. 

Two openings have been made on the Smith property west of 
Keeseville. At the more westerly one the anorthosite forms a ridge 
with a nearly vertical rise on the north of about 50 feet. This is 



being developed as a side-hill quarry. The fractured surface of 
the rock has a light green color with occasional mottlings of dark 
green to black caused by uncrushed remnants of the feldspar. The 
polished surface appears sea-green with the same mottling, but 
showing also more or less the iridescence peculiar to labradorite. 
Close inspection reveals fine specks and threads made up of red 
garnet. A 12-foot diabase dike intersects the ledge in an east-Avest 

The second quarry, 1000 feet northeast from the former, is a pit 
which at the time of the writer's visits was about 20 feet 'deep. 
The stone is much coarser with more of the residual feldspar 
crystals distributed through the mass. The jointing is in two di- 
rections — northeast and northwest — with a horizontal series from 
3 to 4 feet apart. Along two of the northeasterly joint seams have 
been intruded dikes of trap and syenite porphyry, the former 3 
inches and the latter 18 inches wide. 

The anorthosite is exposed on the west shores of Augur lake in 
a series of clififs from 75 to 100 feet high. The sides of the cliffs 
have been exposed directly to the weather ever since the glacial 
period at least, yet the weathered stone is only a fraction of an 
inch thick. This seems to indicate good resisting powers to frost 
and agencies of decomposition. The jointing is very heavy, the 
intervals often being 8 or 10 feet. Some of the rock contains 
biotite in the place of the usual pyroxene. 

Microscopic examination. The general run of the stone from 
the different localities may be described as composed of labradorite 
in large part, the average being from 75 to 85 per cent. On account 
of the frequent residual feldspar crystals, the grain would be called 
coarse, although the groundmass itself is fine grained. The larger 
feldspars are from 10 to 20 mm in diameter, with occasional in- 
dividuals still larger. The principal dark mineral is diopside, which 
appears emerald green in thin sections. Hornblende and biotite are 
locally developed and take the place of the pyroxene. Garnet is 
nearly always present in aggregates of small grains arranged about 
the pyroxene, from which it has no doubt been derived in the 
metamorphic process. Ilmenite is in small amount and an occasional 
speck of pyrite can be seen. The decomposition products are kaolin 
from the feldspar and chlorite from the ferromagnesian minerals. 
They are not in sufficient amount to cause any noticeable weakening 
of the structure. 

Physical tests. Specimens of the anorthosite were tested by the 
office of public roads. United States Department of Agriculture, at 


Washington with the following results, no. i referring to the stone 
from the Smith property and no. 2 to that at Augur lake. 

Nc. I No. 2 

Crushing strenglh, pounds a square inch 20,500 18,500 

Specific gravity 2.75 2 . 70 

Weight, pounds a cubic foot 172 168 

Water absorbed, pounds a cubic foot .51 .49 

Wear (French coefficient) 11. 7 10.4 

Hardness 18 18 

Toughness 13 10 

The physical tests indicate that the material meets all the ordinary 
requirements cf building material. There can be little doubt as to its 
durability under weathering conditions, though it has not been 
proved by actual service in buildings. For polished work it should 
also prove acceptable on account of its rare color. The only draw- 
back to that use seems to be the presence in some of the polished 
specimens of minute hairlike fractures visible on close inspection. 
These are the more apparent by reason of the translucent back- 
ground, but as evidenced by the crushing strength and absorption 
do not materially weaken the general structure. 

Quarry of C. B. White, Augur lake 
Along the west side of Augur lake anorthosite outcrops over a 
large area, forming a broad ridge which breaks off at the lakeside 
in a line of perpendicular cliffs 100 feet high. It is mostly a light- 
colored labradorite rock, of medium grain, in general appearance 
not unlike gray granite. It contains scattered crystals of pyroxene 
and occasionally some biotite. In places these minerals become 
sufficiently abundant to give a rather dark tone to the rock surface, 
but generally they are of subordinate importance. The minor 
accessory constituents are garnet, ilmenite and a little chlorite and 
kaolin from decomposition. The anorthosite is undoubtedly a 
good durable building stone. 

The property owned by Mr White includes a quarry opening 
which lies on top of the ridge above the lake. The quarry was last 
worked in 1892; the product was employed in the construction of 
the Criminal Courts Building in New York City. A large quantity 
of rough stone, much of it suitable for dimension stone, was left 
in the quarry. The principal drawback to operations is the long 
haulage to the railroad, the nearest shipping point being Keeseville, 
the terminus of a short branch railroad that connects with the 
Delaware and Hudson line at Port Kent. The quarry is about 5 
miles in a direct line from the shore of Lake Champlain. 



The great anorthosite intrusion of the central Adirondacks has its 
most easterly exposure on Split Rock mountain, the bold ridge that 
forms the western shore of Lake Champlain for several miles, be- 
ginning just north of Westport. The whole mountain is practically- 
made up of this rock and its gabbroic type, though on the north 
end it gives way in places to the Grenville series of limestones and 
schists which have been surrounded and borne up apparently by the 
igneous mass. The darker phase of the anorthosite is mainly in 
evidence in the exposures along the lake and on the north end. 
The bulk consists of the grayish feldspathic variety which has been 
more or less comminuted by regional compression. In some parts 
of the mountain the rock has a distinctly porphyritic appearance by 
reason of the large residual feldspar crystals, but again it shows a 
local development that is characterized by uniformity of grain. 

The only quarry workings in this exposure that are known to the 
writer are on the eastern face of the mountain, about one-fourth 
of a mile back from the lake and at an elevation of fjom 500 to 
600 feet. They are reached by a trail from the Westport road and 
also from the lake by folloiwing the old tramway line that was 
used to lower the stone. The locality is just north of the little bay 
called Barn Rock harbor on the United States geological sheet, but 
is mentioned as Barron Rock in Smock's report of 1888. According 
to the latter, the quarries were first opened in 1881 by the Cham- 
plain Granite and Marble Co., and reopened in 1887 by the Adiron- 
dack Granite Co. Under the latter company, as the writer has been 
informed, a quantity of building and monumental stone was shipped, 
some of the building material having been sent to New York City. 
By 1890 the quarries were again closed and have not been worked 

General characters. The stone from the quarry site has a 
grayish body with porphyritic feldspar of somewhat darker color. 
It is practically all feldspar, belonging to the very basic plagioclase 
series. Small, scattered crystals of pyroxene (diopside), magnetite 
and quartz occur in the interstices of the feldspar aggregate. The 
magnetite shows slight decomposition to hematite, but there is little 
pyrite, judging from the samples that were examined. 


A gneiss of massive granitic appearance, pink or gray in color, 
outcrops on the ridge north of Dannemora, Clinton county. The 
exposure is a part of the larger belt of granitic and syenitic gneisses 



which are developed extensively in the northern Adirondacks and 
are included in the Saranac formation of dishing. In places the 
gneisses lose their usual foliated structure and when free of ad- 
mixture with other contrasting gneisses are well suited for building 
and engineering materials. They contain a predominant proportion 
of the feldspar minerals, with moderate to small amounts of quartz 
and little of the dark silicates in the form of hornblende and 
diopside. Magnetite is a variable constituent, ranging up to 7 or 
8 per cent in amount. The texture is fine and compact, the result 
of crushing and to some extent of recrystallization of coarse 

The principal quarries in this area are situated on the ridge back 
of the State Prison and Hospital grounds ; they have been worked 
for the supply of building stone for these structures and to some 
extent for other purposes. They belong to the firm of Allen & 
Cunningham who have operated them under the name of the Danne- 
mora Granite Co. 

There are two openings situated less than a mile from Dannemora 
and from 300 to 400 feet above it. The more northerly one shows a 
pink gneiss of fine grain, containing magnetite as the principal dark 
ingredient, with more or less hornblende. There are occasional 
bunches of the dark minerals and also bands of pegmatite. The 
rock is jointed fairly regularly by two vertical veins running north- 
south and east-west respectively. Two trap dikes cut the granite 
just south of the quarry. The rock face is about 20 feet high. At 
the second opening the granite has a similar character and shows 
pegmatitic and dark-colored inclusions. A 4-foot trap dike inter- 
sects the quarry face in an east-west direction. The face is 100 feet 
long and 30 feet high. Jointing is prominent in two directions as 
at the first quarry. The streaks and inclusions are the main handi- 
cap to the working of the quarry for building purposes, although 
by selection a good quality of material can be obtained. 


A massive gray granite is found in the town of Wilton, Saratoga 
county, about 2 miles north of Saratoga Springs. It outcrops on 
the easterly-facing ridge which marks the first elevations of the 
Precambric highland of the Adirondacks to the west of the Paleo- 
zoic plain. The area is of unknown extent but to the north the 
granite soon disappears, being succeeded by Grenville schists and 
quartzites with bands of crystalline limestone. The granite has a 
fine granular texture, the result probably of crushing of a much 


coarser rock under pressure metamorphism. There is evidence of 
the original coarse grain in occasional fragments of feldspar and 
quartz which have escaped the general reduction. In its appear- 
ance and physical characters it resembles the earlier series of 
Adirondack granites, but does not show their well-defined laminated 
structure owing to the small proportion of dark minerals. 

The granite was quarried quite actively at one time, and the old 
quarry face is still conspicuous as a white patch on the face of the 
ridge. The quarry property is owned by Henry McGurk of Sara- 
toga Springs by whom it was last worked about twenty years ago. 
It was operated mainly for paving blocks which were used in the 
streets of Albany and Brooklyn, but some building material was 
sold of which a specimen structure may be seen in the Hathorn 
vault in Saratoga Springs. 

The quarry face lies about 80 feet above the base of the ridge 
and is 100 feet long. The stone has been quarried back for 60 'feet 
or more. Apparently the granite was shot down in large masses 
which were then broken up and trimmed into paving blpcks on the 
spot. A large amount of waste had accumulated on the Cjuarry 
floor to the obstruction of the progress of development. The rock 
is traversed by two series of joints of which the more prominent 
has a course about N. 25° E. dipping 80° northwest, and the other 
about N. 60° W. with a dip of 80° northeast. There is also a series 
of division planes inclining about 40° to the south, parallel to which 
a faint lamination can be seen in the granite owing to parallel 
orientation of the biotite scales. It is said to have a good rift and 
grain so as to dress readily with even surfaces. Small bands of 
lighter granite are intercalated parallel with the lamination in parts 
of the cjuarry, and occasional knots or segregations of pegmatite and 
vein quartz are observable. There is, however, a good proportion 
of uniform material that could be used for building stone. 

The granite is medium gray with very little of the dark silicates, 
which are limited mainly to biotite. Garnet in the form of grains 
and aggregates of grains up to an inch across is a subordinate but 
rather conspicuous constituent. The texture is compact, and the 
particles of quartz and feldspars average between i and 2 mm in 
diameter, the rock thus belonging to the fine-grained granites. 

Microscopic examination. The feldspar consists of orthoclase, 
micnocline and oligoclase, all of wliich show some alteration to 
sericite which impairs the quality of hardness. The particles are 
broken and angular and show strain shadows, evidencing the in- 
tense compression the rock has undergone. The cjuartz fills in the 



interspaces and is also granulated. The biotite occurs in small 
scales, which here and there have been converted into chlorite. 
Iron ores occur very sparingly. The granite may be considered as 
a fair material for crushed stone or paving blocks and well adapted 
for all foundation work. 


An occurrence of granite at Horicon, on the outlet of Brant lake, 
Warren county, has supplied some building stone in an experi- 
mental way. It has not attracted much attention for commercial 
quarry purposes, owing to its remoteness from the railroad and 
difificulties of getting the material into the market. The present 
interest is mainly connected with the rather unusual nature of the 
rock which differs from that of normal granites. 

The rock has a porphyritic appearance owing to the presence of 
pink feldspars, which measure up to an inch long and are rather 
thickly distributed through a groundmass of dark gray color which 
is composed of greenish feldspar, quartz and biotite. The large 
feldspars give an attractive pattern and a warm tone to the polished 
surface. They belong to the microcline variety and are developed 
in stout prisms that are usually twinned and occasionally granulated 
and squeezed into lenticular form. The greenish feldspar of the 
groundmass is a plagioclase identified as oligoclase. It forms 
rounded grains 2 or 3 mm in diameter. The biotite occurs in even 
smaller particles, but so abundantly as to lend a dark color to the 
body of the rock which, apart from the feldspathic constituents, 
has the character of a biotite schist. 

The rock in fact is really a modified schist, the original of which, 
consisting of biotite and cjuartz with subordinate feldspar, has been 
drenched with solutions or vapors from a neighboring granite mass. 
The presence of the latter at least as an underlying body, is indi- 
cated by numerous pegmatite dikes, some of large size, that are 
exposed in the vicinity and that contain the same feldspar in- 
gredients as the schist itself. In the vicinity of the dikes the 
granitic material increases in proportion to that of the original 
schist and the rock becomes lighter colored and coarser in grain. 
The groundmass is more or less recrystallized and largely absorbed. 
The impregnation of hornblende and biotite schists by granites is a 
common feature of Adirondack geology, but usually it leads to the 
formation of striped or leaf gneisses in which the original schist 
and the granite alternate in parallel bands. In the present instance, 
however, the added igneous material lacks any definite arrange- 


ment that might come from injection along definite planes, but is 
quite uniformly intermixed as if the impregnation had taken place 
with equal facility in all directions. 

In consequence of the method of origin the rock varies in ap- 
pearance and character f roim place to place, and there would be some 
difficulty in quarrying an even grade of product sUch as is required 
in building stone. It is a good material, however, for purposes of 
ordinary construction, in engineering works, foundations etc. 
Though it has not been tested for crushing strength, there is little 
doubt that it is fairly up to the average granite in that respect as 
well as in other physical qualities that make for durability. 

Microscopically the rock appears quite fresh, except for incipient 
alteration of the feldspar which is somewhat sericitized. There are 
no sulphides ; very little of iron oxides, with magnetite as the single 
representative ; and no chloritic ingredients. Along with the second- 
ary quartz and feldspar appears a notable amount of apatite in 
small prisms which is probably a pneumatolytic product incident to 
the granite invasion. The biotite is largely concentrated about the 
borders of the feldspar and quartz, as if it had been cfowded out 
from the spaces occupied by the latter during their crystallization. 


Gneissic rocks suitable for most purposes for which massive 
granite is used occur in the Adirondack Precambric area north and 
west of Gloversville. The boundary between the gneisses which 
form the Adirondack ridges and the Paleozoic sedimentaries at 
their base crosses Fulton county diagonally from northeast to 
southwest and is paralleled from Northville to Gloversville and 
Johnstown by the railroad which, however, is generally from 2 to 
3 miles distant from the foot of the ridge. 

The principal opening in the vicinity is the Edel quarry which is 
situated 35^ miles northwest of Gloversville and, is worked by E. T. 
Edel of that place. It has supplied a large amount of architectural 
and constructional stone for the prosperous communities along the 
Mohawk river, having been operated more or less actively during the 
last twenty years. At present, building and curb stone are the 
principal products. 

The rock is dark gray and though distinctly laminated shows 
little difference in appearance when cut parallel to or across the 
bedding. The grain is fine and compact, with some coarser particles 
of quartz and feldspar up to 3 or 4 mm in diameter scattered 
through the mass. The feldspar is mainly microcline. White 


quartz, biotite and a little hornblende are the other ingredients. 
There are no sulphides, so far as observed. The material is well 
adapted for all general construction purposes, as it is strong and 
no doubt as durable as any massive granite of similar composition. 


A pink granite has been quarried to some extent near White Lake 
station on the Mohawk and Malone branch of the New York 
Central Railroad. It is a medium-grained, compact, slightly 
gneissoid rock with very little dark components which consist of 
scattered grains of garnet and minute flakes of biotite. It repre- 
sents a rather massive phase of the granite gneisses that are of 
widespread occurrence in the western Adirondacks. 


The prominence at the northern portal of the Hudson gorge, 
known as Breakneck ridge, is made up of a homogeneous gneissoid 
rock that is generally called the Storm King granite. There is 
little doubt of its granitic derivation, and the foliated appearance 
which it generally exhibits is a secondary character superinduced 
since its first consolidation. The granite is exposed over many 
square miles, forming one of the larger areas of that rock in the 
Highlands. From the characteristic members of the gneiss series in 
the vicinity it is distinguished by its greater uniformity of com- 
position and appearance and its usually more massive structures, 
while it is also lacking in any marked banding or similarity to a 
bedded arrangement. 

The granite area is limited on the north by a great unconformity 
that separates the Highlands Precambric crystalline formations 
from the less metamorphosed Cambro-Siluric strata of the Middle 
Hudson region. This break marks also an extensive fault. On the 
other sides the area is not sharply defined by topographic or struc- 
tural features, and the granite gives way to gneisses which are for 
the most part laminated and more or less conspicuously banded and 
which include siliceous and calcareous members. The gneisses are 
of early Precambric age, the banded sedimentary types being classed 
by Berkey as Grenville. The relations of the granite to these 
gneisses have not been definitely determined, but it appears likely 
from what has been learned that its intrusion took place early in 
Precambric time among the first igneous invasions that are clearly 
demonstrated in the region. 


In general the rock is a medium-grained, grayish or reddish, 
somewhat gneissoid granite. Parts of the exposure are thoroughly 
massive. There is a more or less marked tendency toward pegmati- 
zation ; streaks, dikes and irregular bodies of reddish pegmatite are 
in evidence in most outcrops, and the granite itself shows coarser 
phases produced by disseminated crystals of the same red 'feldspar 
that occurs in the pegmatite. Inclusions of a dark hornblendic 
rock also occur. They may represent dikes which have been broken 
and crumpled, or perhaps are bands of the surrounding gneisses 
which have been caught up in the granite at the time of its intrusion. 

Jointing is usually a marked feature, but is irregular in direction 
except in the case of shear zones which are not infrequent. In 
these zones the rock is usually too broken to afford much dimension 
material. The surfaces of the sheared granite show some decom- 
position and are often coated with chloritic minerals. 

The granite from this area could hardly be quarried economicall)' 
for architectural building stone, but is serviceable for foundation or 
rough work, as well as for crushed stone. For crushing purposes it 
is fully equal to the average granite, as the foliation is not suffi- 
ciently developed to affect its strength or to cause the stone to 
fracture readily in that direction. 

Quarries on Breakneck ridge 

Quarry sites are found along the south side of Breakneck ridge 
for a mile or more back from the river and in the past have' yielded 
large quantities of constructional stone, paving blocks and crushed 
stone. Quarry work began here in the early part of the last century, 
probably before 1825. For the last few years the output has been 
intermittent and small. 

The principal operations have been carried on at Bailey's quarry 
just east of the river and 100 feet above the base of the ridge. The 
quarry face extends 300 feet east and west and, is cjuite 100 feet in 
height. The quarries were equipped at one time with a crushing 
plant which supplied material for highways and railroads but this 
has been dismantled. The quarry work itself has not demanded 
much ecjuipment as the plan usually followed is to break down the 
stone in large blasts and to utilize the product for different purposes 
according to its quality and size. 

Microscopic examination. The granite belongs to the hornblende 
variety, having a dark green hornblende as the ferromagnesian 


mineral. The other important ingredients are feldspar and quartz. 
The feldspar consists principally of microperthite and an acid 
plagioclase, and is sometimes intergrown with the quartz. There 
is a little magnetite but apparently no pyrite. The texture is even 
granular, compact, scarcely differing from that of a normal granite. 

Quarries on Storm King mountain 

There are quarries on the southeastern face of Storm King 
mountain, almost directly opposite those on Breakneck ridge. They 
were once worked for building stone and paving blocks, and Smock 
states that buildings in New York and Washington were erected 
from this granite. A few years ago the Storm King Stone Co. 
erected a large crushing plant here. No dimension stone has been 
shipped for a long time. The granite is very similar in composition 
and appearance to that on the east side of the river but carries some 
biotite as well as hornblende. 

Old quarries, long since abandoned, exist on the south side of 
Crow's Nest mountain, and on the next ridge to the south which is 
partly occupied by the grounds of the West Point Military Acad- 
emy. Some of the academy buildings are constructed of material 
from these quarries. 


King's quarry 

A small area of massive granite is exposed north of Peekskill 
between Manitou and Garrison in Putnam county. It lies within 
the main gneiss belt that forms the more rugged part of the High- 
lands as exemplified in the Hudson gorge section from Anthony's 
Nose to Breakneck ridge on the east bank. The area is about one- 
fourth of a mile back from the river and 2^ miles from Garrison, 
a station on the New York Central and also a point for river ship- 

The outcrop appears to have the structure of a boss which has 
cut through the country gneisses but has not shared in their extreme 
metamorphism. The gneisses are Precambric and probably belong 
to the earlier or basal division of the series represented in this 
region. From the field associations the age of the granite intrusion 
can only be indefinitely fixed, with a probability in favor of late 
Precambric or early Paleozoic times. The proximity of the Cort- 
landt series, which is only a few miles to the south, as well as the 


existence of a granitic facies among its highly differentiated repre- 
sentatives, might be regarded perhaps as suggestive of some relation 
with that invasion which took place as late at least as Siluric time. 

A comparison of the Garrison and Peekskill granites shows that 
they resemble each other only in regard to color and their uniformly 
massive habit. The former is a representative of the normal alkali 
class of granites characterized by a preponderance of the potash 
feldspar over the lime-soda varieties ; the Peekskill rock on the other 
hand shows by its high content of plagioclase an affinity with the 
diorite-gabbro series and, strictly considered, is to be classed as a 
quartz monzonite. The Garrison boss, also, is distinguished by a 
fine cataclastic texture, while the samples of the Peekskill granite 
seldom show any appreciable effects of pressure metamorphism. 
These features point more or less clearly to a separate, independent 
source of the two intrusives and the prior age of the Garrison boss. 

The granite has been quarried quite extensively for building stone 
and foundation material, for which purposes it is very well adapted. 
The main opening is known as King's quarry, operated, at one time 
by the King Granite Co., and later by Doern & Sons of New 

Some of the buildings erected from material secured at this 
quarry are : St Joseph's Church, Tremont av. & Washington St., 
New York ; Guard House at West Point ; powder magazine on lona 
island in the Hudson river ; and a school building in Tarrytown. 
The property has not been worked extensively for the last few 
years 'and probably will not again be a very active producer. The 
granite boss, however, extends out on the adjoining lands, so that 
other quarries may be operated in the future. A site already pros- 
pected is found just south of King's quarry on the land of Raymond 
Moore of Peekskill. 

Field characters. The general structure and quality of the 
granite are best shown at King's quarr)^ which covers perhaps half 
an acre of surface and has a face up to 50 feet high. The principal 
structural feature is lent by the jointing which is well developed, 
especially the sheet joints. The latter divide the exposed rock into 
elongated horizontal lenses that are from i to 3 feet thick in the 
middle but increasing in size as depth is attained. The sheets are 
inclined slightly toward the northwest. Three sets of steeply in- 
clined joints also occur, of which the most prominent strikes north 
and south and dips 70° east; another set strikes N. 40° W. and 
dips 70° southwest ; and the third strikes east-west and dips 60° 
north. The rift is stated to be about parallel v/ith the first set. 



In physical appearance the granite is characterized by a fine grain, 
medium gray color of body that is well blended, and massive to 
faintly gneissoid texture. Small crystals of garnet are sparsely 
scattered through the mass but are noticeable only on close view. 
There are few streaks or discolorations apparent in the exposure. 

Microscopic examination. The rock consists essentially of 
feldspar, quartz and biotite in order of importance, with garnet as 
an accessory which has probably been formed by a partial recrystal- 
lization of the minerals caused by compression exerted upon the 
boss after its intrusion. The feldspar and quartz are in irregular 
particles closely interwoven. Their average diameter is about 5 mm. 
The biotite is in very fine beds, sprinkled like dust through the gray 
groundmass. The texture is close and firm. 

The feldspar minerals include microcline, microperthite and ortho- 
clase as representatives of the alkali class and an acid plagioclase 
which has subordinate importance to the others. They are but little 
altered. The biotite is somewhat bleached or partly changed to 
chlorite. The absence of pyrite or other igneous ingredients is 

Physical tests. The granite from this quarry has a specific 
gravity of 2.68, ratio of absorption .3 per cent, and pore space 
.792 per cent. 


Round island, in the Hudson just above Peekskill, is made up 
of granite which at one time was actively quarried for crushed 
stone. The quarry was worked up to ten years ago by Daniel 
Donovan of Kingston. The site of the quarry was not visited by 
the writer and there are no details available as to the character 
of the stone aside from the following chemical analysis, supplied 
by Mr Donovan : 

SiOs 63.19 

AI2O3 10.50 

FciOs 10.97 

FeO I. SI 

CaO 6.12 

MgO 1.44 

K2O 4.02 

Na20 1.92 

Loss .18 

Undet .15 



Granite intrusions are found on the borders of the area occupied 
by the Cortlandt series, which is the name given to an interesting 
group of basic igneous rocks exposed to the south and east of 
Peekskill. The Cortlandt series comprises diorites, gabbros, norites, 
pyroxenites and other types of basic habit, with such relationship 
as to indicate that they represent the differentiated products of a 
single deep-seated magma. Their intrusion took place probably as 
late as Siluric times since the series breaks through and includes 
portions of the metamorphosed sediments that are classed with -the 
Hudson River series of the Lower Siluric. Their outcrop extends 
over an area 5 miles in east-west diameter and about 4 miles from 
north to south, in outline an immense boss. 

The granite exposures are on the north side of the Cortlandt area 
and immediately adjacent to it. The first outcrop encountered 
on the west is a mile or so out of Peekskill on the little knob lying 
between the Lake Mohegan road and the east- west highway, just 
west of the line of the Catskill Aqueduct. The locality is known 
as the Roberts quarry. Millstone hill, which lies a mile farther east 
and south of the east-west highway, is made up in its northern 
slopes of granite, but is apparently near the contact with the basic 
rocks of the Cortlandt series which appears on the next prominence 
to the west. A third place where granite appears in force is across 
the valley from Millstone hill, on the south and west slopes of a 
ridge, about a mile south from Lake Mohegan. The Mohegan 
Granite Company has quarries at this locality. 

In the several exposures which embrace between them an area 
of 3 or 4 miles, there is naturally some variation in the appearance 
and composition of the granite, though as a whole the samples from 
the different quarries exhibit a degree of uniformity which would 
seem to establish their identity with one and the same intrusive 
mass. This uniformity is reflected in the predominance of white 
feldspar, mainly orthoiclase, aibite and oligoclase, which gives a 
light tone to the lock wherever exposed, in the presence of both 
biotite and muscovite, a moderate to small content of transparent 
quartz, and in the granitic texture which ranges from medium to 
fine grained. It aippears. probable that the different quarries are lo- 
cated on outcrops of a single body which has the Cortland series 
on the southwest and lies against the metamorphic rocks, including 
Paleozoic schists, on the remaining border. The exact extent and 
shape of the mass is somewhat indefinite, as there is a heavy cover- 


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ing of soil and detritus over the low ground that intervenes between 
the exposures. 

Owing to the prevalence of plagioclase among the feldspars 
represented, the Peekskill granite shows a relatively high pro- 
portion of soda as compared with most granites and appears to be 
genetically allied with the diorites of the Cortlandt series. This 
feature, as well as the field relationships already mentioned, lends 
support to the view expressed by Berkey ^ that the granite repre- 
sents but a phase of the Cortlandt invasion and not a separate 
body ; it constitutes the acid extreme of the series which in the 
other direction range through diorite, gabbro and norite to rocks 
like pyroxenite and peridotite that are destitute of quartz and feld- 

The granite like the typical Cortlandt rocks, is thoroughly mas- 
sive in texture, lacking evidences of strong compression and the 
gneissoid development which are so common among the Precambric 
and early Paleozoic rocks of this section. Its intrusion occurred 
therefore after the period of regional metamorphism that marked 
the close of Lower Siluric time — the last stage in the general 
metamorphism of the region. The contact of the granite with the 
country rocks is very generally concealed, but inclusions that ap- 
parently represent the bordering schists are not infrequent and 
sufficiently establish the nature of the contact relations in that 
respect. The latest of the country schists belong to the Hudson 
River series. The inclusions mostly in evidence are amphibolites 
and dark hornblende schists which undoubtedly came from some of 
the earlier and underlying formations. 

The view expressed as to the common derivation of the granite 
and the Cortlandt rocks can not be supported by observations in 
regard to their mutual contact relations, as such information was 
not procurable when the writer visited the locality. There seems 
to be complete similarity, however,, in their attitude with respect to 
the crystalline schists, and the field evidences, so far as they go, 
are indicative of a geologically contemporaneous intrusion for both 
granite and gabbros. 

Mohegan Granite Company's quarries 

The quarry property of the Mohegan Granite Company is situated 
a little east of the Cortlandt township line in Yorktown, West- 
chester county, on the southwestern slope of a prominent ridge 

' Science, 28: 575, 1908. 




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which extends northward past Mohegan lake. The workings He 
between 400 and 500 feet above tidewater at Peekskill and 5 miles 
distant by the highway. Regular quarry operations date from 1892 
when the granite was wrought by E. P. Roberts for the construction 
of the dams at Carmel and Purdy station in connection with the 
New York water supply. The granite was later selected, after an 
extended search for material adapted to the purpose, for the con- 
struction of the Cathedral of St John the Divine, the largest church 
edifice in America, and during several years the quarries have been 
engaged in supplying cut stone for that structure which will require 
shipments for some time to come. It has been used also in other 
buildings in New York, including the residences of Charles M. 
Schwab on Riverside drive and of Clarence W. Bowen on 63d street, 
the Postal Telegraph Building on lower Broadway, the Cross Build- 
ing on Fifth avenue, and several of the houses^ in the Bronx Geo- 
logical Gardens. It has also found considerable sale for monu- 
mental work, examples of which may be seen in many of the larger 
cities of the east. 

The quarries furnish two varieties of the granite, a light gray of 
more or less pinkish hue and a rich yellowish brown that is almost 
a golden yellow when seen at close range. The yellow granite has 
no match in beauty and uniformity of its color among eastern 
granites and its warm, subdued effect in buildings has won favor 
wherever the stone has been introduced. -The light gray color is 
characteristic for the Peekskill granite as a whole and occurs below 
the yellow at varying depths, but usually the change occurs at or 
about 40 or 50 feet. The color variation so pronounced at these 
quarries seems to be purely local, the yellow granite occurring no- 
where else and being the result, as later explained, of secondary 
influences at work since the consolidation of the intrusion and its 
exposure at the surface. 

The quarry openings extend over a distance of several hundred 
feet on the hill slope, which falls off rather steeply to the west. 
The thin soil covering supports a moderate forest growth and 
serves to conceal the outcrop over much of the undeveloped ground. 
The granite is known, however, to cover an extensive area. The 
principal quarry is at the south end, and runs northeasterly for 
300 feet, showing a face against the hill of about 40 or 50 feet. 
This quarry is served by a short inclined tramway on which the 
cars are raised and lowered by a cable. The granite has a slightly 
sheeted structure, the sheets dipping 15° or 20° west. There are 
two principal joint systems, one vertical with a strike of N. 70 "" E., 


'and the other inchned 80° or 90" and striking N. 30° W. The rift 
is about north-south and nearly vertical. The joints are irregularly 
spaced, usually at fairly wide intervals, but in one place form a 
heading where only material for crushing purposes is secured. 
Dimension stone of almost any merchantable size can be quarried. 

Knots and streaks are rare and dikes apparently absent. There 
are occasional inclusions of the country schists, the larger ones 
being on the northwest and east sides of the c[uarries. A con- 
spicuous example which is found on the north side of the incline 
consists of black hornblende schist that has been injected by granite 
and pegmatite and forms a vertical wall for a short distance, wedg- 
ing out finally in the granite which apparently surrounds it com- 

The quarries are equipped with modern machinery for breaking, 
hoisting and cutting the granite, but as yet are scarcely developed 
to the stage that admits the most advantageous operations. The 
stone is mostly dressed on the ground. The cost of haulage by 
wagon to Peekskill makes that necessary. Increased facilities for 
cutting have recently been provided by the erection of a steel-frame 
shed of dimensions 130 by 50 feet. The capacity for turning out 
finished material is thereby more than doubled. The equipment at 
the quarries includes a 50-ton crushing plant for working up the 
waste material. 

Microscopic character. The granite from this locality belongs 
to the medium-grained class, inclining toward the finer end of the 
scale. It is a mixture of feldspar, quartz and mica in their order 
of abundance. The feldspar and quartz are mostly under .25 cm 
in diameter, the quartz individuals occasionally slightly exceeding 
that limit. The mica includes both biotite and muscovite and is so 
finely divided and evenly distributed as to be little noticeable except 
against the white background of the light gray granite. The feld- 
spars include albite, oligoclase and subordinate orthoclase, all of 
which show incipient alteration by their clouded appearance under 
the microscope. Chlorite is sparingly present as an alteration 
product of the biotite. The accessory constituents include magnetite, 
zircon and apatite in very small amounts. 

The yellow or golden hue characteristic of the superficial part of 
the granite is due to the presence of a little limonite stain distributed 
along the borders and microscopic cracks of the quartz and feldspar, 
particularly of the quartz which seems to carry most of the color- 
ing matter. The stain is not accompanied by any marked softening 
or decomposition, contrary to what might perhaps be expeoted, for 

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Mohegan yellow granite. Peekskill 


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Mohegan gray granite. Peekskill 



the granite when examined microscopically appears little more 
weathered than the gray variety. The apparently even distribution 
of the coloring matter when the rock is viewed in the mass disap- 
pears on closer examination and the stain is seen to be developed 
in flecks and lines scattered over a white background of feldspar 
and quartz. Most of the limonite is found in the quartz which is 
the ingredient that shows the most granulation and consecjuently the 

Fig. II The yellow Mohegan granite, showing concentration of limonite 
along the borders and in the cleavage cracks of the mineral particles 

most open space for its deposition. The source of the limonite is 
traceable to iron-bearing solutions from the surface which found their 
way downward along the joints and then diiTused through the rock 
by means of the capillary openings. It may have been derived from 
decay of the overlying rock in the long j^eriod of exposure previous 
to Preglacial time, but of such a zone of disintegration there is no 
remaining evidence at present and is hardly to be expected after the 
erosive work of the ice. The limonite often seems to be concen- 
trated about the biotite, but this is not a result primarily of a 
chemical alteration of that mineral, but rather arises from the in- 
filtration of the iron along the cleavage planes of the biotite. Much 
of the biotite is perfectly fresh, showing no bleaching or other 
change that could result in freeing any of the iron. In some of the 


sections exaniinccl a small i:)roporlioii of the flakes showed partial 
or complete change to chlorite. The amount of iron set free from 
the biotite in any case is entirely insufficient to produce the present 

Chemical and physical features. The following data in regard 
to the granite was supplied by the Mohegan Granite Co. in 1904 in 
response to the request from this office. The tests were made on 
four separate samples in the laboratories of Ricketts & Banks. 
It was not specified whether they were based on the yellow or the 
gray variety. 

Iron Sulphur Specific strength 

Sample per cent per cent gravity lbs. a sq. in. 

1 .34 .015 2.64 21,979 

2 .86 trace 2.62 19,303 

3 -30 .022 2.64. 12,547 

4 I. IS .015 2.67 16,889 

The lower crushing strength of no. 3 is accounted for by a defect 
in cutting the sample which resulted in the loss of a chip from one 
corner. The tests evidence the physical soundness of the granite 
and confirm the results of quarry and microscopic examinations. 
The weathering qualities of the granite are considered excellent. 
The pyrite content as indicated by the sulphur percentage is too 
small to have any influence. 

A sample of the light gray granite tested by the writer had a ratio 
of aibsorption of .319 per cent and pore space .829 per cent. The 
yellow granite showed a ratio of absorption .368 per cent, pore 
space .962 per cent. 

An analysis of the granite from this quarry by Elwyn Waller 
is given herewith : 

SiOs 73-32 

AI2O3 15.01 

Fe203 .47 

FeO 1. 19 

MgO 15 

CaO 1.35 

Na20 4.27 

K.0 3.72 

H2O+ 13 

TiO. 06 

MnO trace 

Total 99.67 


Millstone Hill or Cornell quarry 

The largest opening in the Peekskill granite is on Millstone hill 
south of the highway leading east from Peekskill and adjacent to 
the line of the Catskill Aqueduct. It is across the valley and a 
mile distant from the Mohegan Granite Company's quarries, in 
Cortlandt township. The main development of the property re- 
sulted from the operations by Coleman, Breuchaud & Coleman, the 
contractors for the new Croton dam which was constructed entirely 
from material secured at this place. The quarry has furnished also 
some stone for buildings in the vicinity, notably the Drum hill 
school at Peekskill. It has been idle for the last few years, but 
recently has come into the control of Rudiger Brothers who aim to 
reopen it. 

The quarry lies east and west on the ridge, about 150 feet above 
the highway. The lower ground is heavily covered with soil and 
drift. The excavation measures about 500 feet long and 200 feet 
wide in extreme dimensions and has lDeen carried downward to a 
depth ranging from 30 feet on the north side to 75 feet on the 
south. No hoists or other equipment are standing on the property. 
In the period of operation the stone was transported on a tramway 
to the Croton dam, but the road has been torn up. The outlet is 
by way of Peekskill to the railroad or the Hudson river, involving 
a haulage of about 4 miles. 

In the C[uarry the granite shows the characteristic massive struc- 
ture; joints are rather wide apart and irregularly spaced, except on 
the west end where they form a heading. The joint systems include 
a north-south series which dips 80° west and an east-west vertical 
series. Horizontal division planes have little persistence, hardly 
justifying their reference to sheeting, though there is some tendency 
toward division on planes dipping slightly south and west. The 
rift is reported to run parallel with the north-south joints. No dikes 
or large inclusions are observable in the quarry walls. 

At this quarry there is no capping of yellow granite, so prominent 
in the Mohegan property, and the only suggestion of any color 
change consists of a slightly mottled effect produced by a little 
lirn'onite stain around the biotite crystals, like the rust on iron. This 
is apparently the initial step in the transformation from gray to yel- 
low. The granite from the deeper parts of the quarry, however, 
is entirely free of limonite with a very uniform body that appears 
almost white. The quality is excellent for all architectural purposes. 


Microscopic character. Feldspar is first in importance as a con- 
stituent and consists mainly of albite or acid oligoclase with sub- 
ordinate orthoclase. The individual crystals often show marked 
zonal structure. Alteration is evidenced by clouding and the de- 
velopment of muscovite and probably also of kaolin. The quartz 
is slightly gray or smoky in color. Of the micas, muscovite is 
equally common with the biotite variety and occurs in original 
crystals, as well as secondary growths from feldspar. The biotite 
shows partial change to chlorite. Iron ores are very scarce except 
for the little limonite that occurs in the exposed part of the granite. 
The grain may be classed as medium, the coarser particles of feld- 
spar and quartz attaining a diameter of lo mm. The interspaces 
are filled up with finer interlocking individuals and the texture is 
very compact. 

Crushing strength. A crushing test performed by Ricketts & 
Banks on a samiple fro^m the quarry, as co-mmjunicated by J. M. 
Rudiger, showed an ultimate strength of nearly 21,000 pounds 
to the square inch. The details are as follows: size qf cube, 1.99 
by 2 by 1.99 inches ; area 3.98 inches ; breaking strain 83,100 pounds ; 
ultimate strength 20,870 pounds a square inch. The granite is 
unquestionably strong and durable. 

Roberts quarry 

An exposure of granite occurs in the knob lying just southeast 
of Jacobs hill and between the Peekskill-Lake Mohegan road and 
the Catskill Aqueduct. It is more than a mile west of Millstone 
hill. The knob is of small compass, a few hundred feet in diameter 
and less than 100 feet high. It has been opened on the southeastern 
side to supply stone for local construction. The quarry is only 
about a mile out of Peekskill and appears to be located at the most 
accessible point of the granite area. 

The quarry cut is about 100 feet long, with two small-sized der- 
ricks in place. The granite is well jointed along two directions, 
N. 60° W., and N. 20° E. but is not sheeted. 

The stone differs considerably in texture and appearance from 
that exposed in other parts of the area, but the general composition, 
so far as the nature of the mineral ingredients are concerned, is 
similar. It has a coarse grain which is made very prominent by the 
large micaceous aggregates of dark color, whereas the body of 
feldspar and quartz has the usual light hue. These aggregates 
formed by intergrowing muscovite and biotite attain a diameter of 
half an inch ; they are oriented parallel with the rift, and to surfaces 


cut in that direction lend a mottled aspect. The quartz and feldspar 
are in granulated condition, probably the result of compression 
upon what originally were large crystals but are now finely com- 
minuted. There is some limonite stain in zones about the mica. 

The granite at this quarry appears darker when observed in mass 
than the average of the other quarries. It would be classed as 
medium gray, with a pinkish tone, the pink being fairly decided in 

As a variant of the Peekskill granite boss may be mentioned an 
outcrop which lies but a few rods to the east of the Roberts quarry 
and undoubtedly is a part of the intrusion. It is characterized by 
the abundance of mica, much greater in amount than observed in 
the rock elsewhere. The color as a consequence is quite dark. 
From microscopic examination the feldspar appears to be almost 
entirely plagioclase and to predominate largely over the quartz. 
The rock by itself would be classed as a granodiorite, and the oc- 
currence serves to bring out the close relation that probably exists 
between the granite and the more basic types which constitute the 
Cortlandt series proper. The ledge is too small to have any im- 
portance for quarry purposes. 


A light-colored granite with a markedly foliate texture is found 
in southern Westchester county where it is the basis of rather ex- 
tensive quarry operations. Under the name of the Yonkers gneiss 
it has been described by Merrill and others and its igneous derivation 
clearly established. The fact, however, that the foliated appearance 
in the main is not the result of secondary recrystallization or meta- 
morphism, but an original feature imparted during the first consol- 
idation of the magma has not been generally recognized. On ac- 
count of this fact it seems more appropriate to call the rock granite 
than gneiss, the latter term implying, as it does, the effects of 

According to the recent work of Berkey, the Yonkers is probably 
to be classed with the early Precambric series of intrusions which 
are represented in the Highland region by the Storm King boss. 
It seems to be confined to thin sills which are intrusive in the 
Fordham gneiss. The development of the parallel arrangement of 
the constituents may be explained as the effects of compression 
exerted during the intrusion of the granite while it was still in a 
condition of mobility, facilitated by the relatively thin mass of the 
granite. There is little in the way of secondary crystallization as 


seen in acid gneisses. Examples of what appears to be crushed and 
sheared gneiss are frequently observable in the field but they are 
probably the result of viscous flowage of the magma. 

The granite outcrops in several areas. The principal belt within 
which most of the quarries are situated parallels the Bronx river 
and Harlem Railroad from a point a little south of Mount Vernon 
to Hartsdale, near White Plains. The outcrop lies along a series 
of hills and ridges between the Bronx and the parallel valleys of 
Tibbitt and Troublesome brooks. Its surface shows only moderate 
relief, the highest elevations slightly exceeding 300 feet, with in- 
tersecting notches and cross-valleys whose bottoms mostly are be- 
tween 100 and 200 feet. The main intrusion is nearly 10 miles 
long, but not much over one-half of a mile wide. This form doubt- 
less results from a sill or sheetlike intrusion of the original granite 
which penetrated the sedimentary formations of the Fordham along 
the bedding planes and has since been upturned so as to afford a 
longitudinal section. 

A second area of the Yonkers occurs along the axis of the main 
belt farther north, near Valhalla and the Kensico reservoir. This 
has not been so actively worked as a source of building stone. 
There are a few quarries, however, that have been operated at 
different times, mainly to supply foundation material, including that 
used in the Kensico dam. 

General characters. The Yonkers granite varies more or less in 
physical structure and appearance. This observation applies even 
to the limited area of a single exposure, where occasionally the char- 
acteristic thinly foliate rock may be seen grading over into a quite 
massive one. There is little variation, however, in respect to the 
mineral composition, and the whole rock mass is c[uite free from 
segregations and inclusions. The quarry sites in most instances 
have been selected with a view to uniformity of the material 
which is obtainable to a fair degree. Eckel ^ describes the general 
features of the Yonkers as follows : 

The color of the Yonkers gneiss varies from a light blue to a 
rather deep red. This variation is partly due to the fact that the 
blue grades in most cases contain more quartz and less feldspar. 
A much more potent cause, however, is that the feldspars themselves 
are either red or bluish. This difference in color is not due to a 
difference in the feldspar species, as the microcline and sheared 
orthoclase appear in both the red and blue Yonkers, and in about 
the same relative proportions. 

1 The Quarry Industry of Southeastern New York. N. Y. State Mus. 
Rep't 54, 1902, p. 155- 

Plate 20 

Yorkers gneissic granite, showing plastic yielding and flowage. Kerbaugh 
quarries, Kensico. 

Graphic granite, an intergrowth of quartz and feldspar. From Bedford, 
Westchester countv. 


The difference of color is of importance economically. ' The red 
forms decay rapidly, while the blue, though often becoming stained 
yellow by iron, do not appear to disintegrate. The writer has not 
been able to follow up this investigation as far as he could have 
wished, and the discussion in this paper should be regarded as 
merely preliminary to a more detailed presentation of the subject. 

The inference in the above quotation that the color variation has 
significance with respect to the durability or weathering qualities of 
the granite claims attention, though no explanation is vouchsafed in 
the paper. The present study has not afforded any clear evidence 
of such relationship. There is apparently a wide difference in the 
capacity of the granite to withstand disintegration, but this feature 
seems more related to the textural characters than to any peculiar- 
ities of the mineral constituents that are reflected in the color. 

Some natural surfaces are practically fresh, though they have 
been exposed to atmospheric conditions since Glacial time. In other 
places the granite is disintegrated to some depth. The first stages of 
weathering are usually manifested in a weakened cohesion of the 
mineral particles, as the result of the alternate expansion and con- 
traction under varying temperatures. The microscopic cracks and 
pore spaces are enlarged with the progress of weathering. The 
final stage of this physical disintegration is reached when the rock 
becomes a loose, mealy aggregate of quartz, feldspar and mica. 
Chemical decay, of course, accompanies the physical breakdown 
and is first evidenced in the separation of iron oxide and the soften- 
ing of the feldspar, but it is mainly effective after the rock has 
undergone partial disintegration. 

It is evident from a study of the granite in the field that the 
texture has much to do with its weathering qualities. The types 
which are characterized by a closely knit fabric, with the individual 
grains well interlocked, as observed in most unchanged granites, 
are resistant to weathering. Such textures are found in the massive 
varieties of the rock and in the foliated types which have not under- 
gone noticeable granulation from shearing action. The granular 
even-textured types, on the other hand, are apt to be of more 
porous nature and more prone to disintegrate. 

The Yonkers is quite free of knots and streaks arising from ir- 
regular mineral distribution. The principal variation relates to 
texture and grain. Coarse, massive phases occur here and there as 
a kind of pegmatitic development. Some exposures are only 
moderately foliated. The characteristic rock, however, is thinly 
foliate, with the biotite interleaving the quartz and feldspar at 
rceular intervals. 


The granite, with the exception of the very granular sorts as noted 
above, is a serviceable stone for all general construction purposes. 
It has no ingredients to cause discoloration or decay with the lapse 
of time. Its durability, when subjected to mere weathering, can 
scarcely be inferior to ordinary granite, though of course it has not 
the same ability to withstand abrasion or wear, on account of its 
tendency to cleave along the foliation planes. The many buildings 
in Yonkers and vicinity that have been constructed of this stone are 
evidence of its good quality as a structural material. 

Microscopic examination. The mineralogy of the granite is 
simple ; feldspar, quartz and biotite are the components in order of 
their relative importance. The feldspar is divided between ortho- 
clase and microcline, with a little plagioclase. The quartz has a 
bluish tint and with the biotite often lends a decided bluish cast 
to the cleavage surfaces, whereas the color across the foliation is 
prevailingly pink, like that of the feldspar. Under compression, the 
quartz has developed into lenticular or spindle-shaped individuals, 
while the feldspar has been corroded and broken dowii into small 
irregular particles. 

The subordinate constituenits include hornblende, iron oxide, 
titanite, and zircon. Sulphides appear to be absent from the mass 
of the rock. There is little change noticeable in the thin sections, 
except a slight kaolinization of the feldspars and separation of small 
amounts of iron from the biotite. 

The rock is fine to medium in grain. The lines of foliation 
marked by the biotite are mostly spaced from 4 to 10 mm apart. 

Quarry development. Quarry work in the Yonkers belt has 
been carried on for a long time, but until about twenty years ago 
did not reach any considerable proportions-. Eckel states that most 
of the quarries operative at the time of his report were opened 
around 1892. At that time, and in the few subsequent years, there 
was unusual activity in building and engineering construction, par- 
ticularly by the railroads, which had a great deal of work in con- 
nection with bridges and retaining walls under way. The market 
for stone, however, was mainly local, and with the completion of 
these improvements the demand so declined as to compel the closing 
of many quarries. The present outlet is principally for building 
stone, as illustrated by many public and private structures in 
Yonkers and vicinity, also in partly dressed condition for founda- 
tion work, and as blocks and crushed stone for road improvements. 



A number of quarry sites mentioned in the earlier descriptions of 
the industry by Smock and others have been converted into building 
plots or otherwise utilized so as to exclude their further exploitation 
for stone. Some of the more important of the old Cjuarries, not 
now worked, will be mentioned here for the purpose of record. 

The Valentine quarries are described by Mather as operative at 
the time of this report (1842) and are also referred to by Smock. 
They were situated 2 miles southeast of Yonkers, on the Mount 
Vernon road. They ^yere worked at intervals when Smock made 
his report and have since been abandoned. 

A cjuarry on the Stewart estate, near Dunwoodie, was worked 
for several years by O'Rourke Brothers of Yonkers. It supplied 
rough and cut building stone and crushed stone. Production 
ceased in 1908. 

The McCabe quarry in the town of Scarsdale, about a mile east 
of Hartsdale, was opened in gneiss similar to the Yonkers, but 
lying off the main belt. The output was mainly crushed stone, with 
some rough foundation stone. The quarry has been idle for about 
ten years and will not again be worked. 

An unnamed quarry, situated about an eighth of a mile north of 
the preceding, in the town of White Plains, near the Cambridge 
road, was operative a few years ago, but has now been permanently 
abandoned. It produced rough and cut building stone and road 
material. There was much waste, owing to pegmatitic admixture 
and the closely spaced joints. The opening was 400 feet long, ex- 
posing 40 feet of a light variety of gneiss, not distinguishable from 
the Yonkers in its characteristic occurrence. 

A small quarry once existed in the town of North Castle, about 
a mile northeast of Silver Lake, and was known as the Collins 
quarry. The rock, according to Eckel, was reddish foliated gneiss 
of the Yonkers type. Production was restricted to local needs and 
it has been closed in recent years. 

The quarry once worked by Dennis Cahill and situated on Reid- 
land avenue, east of Central avenue, has been permanently closed. 

The Flannery quarry in the same vicinity has produced a small 
quantity of stone in recent years, but will not be worked in the 

The Seely quarry, one-half of a mile west of Scarsdale, has been 
abandoned many years and probably will not again be worked. 

The Ferris, Dinnan and Outlet quarries are old openings in the 
body of Yonkers gneiss near Valhalla. 


Hackett quarry 

Hackett Brothers, of Yonkers, have operated a quarry for several 
years in the northern part of the main Yonkers belt. Their property 
lies about a mile north of Dunwoodie, at the junction of Midland 
and Central avenues, and is opened for a distance of 800 feet along 
the course of the gneiss. 

The working face is about 40 feet high. The quarry has furnished 
a large amount of building stone, which is its chief product. Some 
of the larger structures in which the stone has been used are: 
St Joseph's Seminary, Dunwoodie ; Seton Hospital, Spuyten Duyvil ; 
St Joseph's Hospital, Yonkers ; St John's Hospital, Yonkers ; St 
Dennis Church, Lowerre ; and public school buildings Nos. 3, 9, 10, 
15, 18, Yonkers. Polished examples are shown in the columns of 
the county jail at White Plains. 

The rock is characteristic Yonkers, rather fine in grain and of 
bluish color, as seen in the quarry ledge. This color becomes more 
of a pink on the cleavage surface of hand specimens, owing to the 
fact that the colored feldspars are much pressed out, along the 
foliation. The hammer-dressed surfaces are a medium gray. The 
stone is free of spots and discolorations. 

The gneissoid foliation at this locality is quite regular in direction 
and character. The strike is N. 30° E. and the dip vertical or 
slightly turned to the west. Horizontal joints are well developed, 
at an average of from 3 to 5 feet apart, permitting bench operations. 
A second system of joints parallels the foliation, and the third 
strikes N. 65° W. and dips 80° W. The structure is well suited to 
the production of dimension stone. The rift, of course, runs with 
the foliation. 

In quarrying, the stone is broken out by, black powder. Holes 
are put down about 10 feet by a steam drill. This method naturally 
yields a large quantity of material unsuited for building stone and 
this finds sale for rough foundation work, particularly in macadam 
and telford roads. There are two derricks in place. The average 
force is about ten men. Shipments by rail are made by the Putnam 
division of the New York Central Railroad. 

Perri quarry 

A quarry, operated by Louis Perri, is situated on the east side of 
Central avenue, across from the Hackett property. It is just west 
of the site of the old O'Rourke quarry, now converted into building 
lots. The opening at this place is about 100 feet long and affords 
a face about 30 feet high, practically unweathered to the surface. 


The rock is uniform in color and grain, representing a good quality 
of the Yonkers gneiss. The foliate texture is prominent and has 
a north-south strike with a vertical dip. The joint structures in- 
clude a horizontal set spaced about 8 feet, along which the stone is 
quarried in benches. There are also north-south and east-west sets 
spaced about 20 feet apart. On the north side of the quarry, the 
east- west joints are more crowded, practically forming a heading, 
and the rock in that section is adapted only for road material. 

The quarry is worked in a small way and the stone mostly sold 
dressed as lintels, sills etc. Hand drills are used and the stone 
broken out by black powder. The only mechanical equipment is 
a horse derrick. Some good-sized blocks are quarried, the largest 
measuring about 3 by 6 by 8 feet. The rock breaks quite smoothly 
along the foliation. 

Russo quarry 

A small quarry has been opened in the last few years and recently 
operated by John Russo. It. lies about 1000 feet south of the 
Hackett quarry on Midland avenue, near Dunwoodie. The rock is 
the same fine-grained bluish or pinkish gneiss, of foliate structure, 
but is rather more broken than at the former quarry. The vertical 
and horizontal joints are mostly spaced at intervals of 2 or 3 feet, 
so that large-sized blocks are seldom quarried. The product is 
building stone, employed locally in the construction of dwelling 
houses. The scrap and inferior quality rock are sold for road 
material. The work is all done by hand. 

A microscopic examination of the gneiss from this quarry shows 
that there is considerable hornblende in addition to biotite, which 
is the prevailing dark mineral. The feldspars and quartz are 
partially granulated and the uncrushed remnant is drawn out along 
the planes of foliation, the larger and smaller particles often occur- 
ring in alternating bands. The rock is quite fresh, except for the 
incipient alteration of the biotite. This has set free some iron which 
as limonite forms a slight stain along the cracks and sutures. Zircon 
and titanite are fairly abundant accessory minerals. The average 
diameter of the quartz and feldspar particles is between .5 and 
I mm, so that the texture is unusually fine. 

Beekman quarry 

The Beekman quarry is perhaps the oldest of the quarries in 
the Yonkers gneiss. It was worked in the early part of the last 
century and has been operative at intervals down to the present. 
It is situated at Phillipse Manor, about a mile north of Tarrytown, 


and is thus outside the principal areas of Yonkers. The principal 
opening reveals a bluish gneiss which is much fractured and inter- 
sected by a pegmatite dike. The latter occupies nearly one-third 
of the face which measures 60 feet in width. The gneiss strikes 
north and south and dips 60° east. When visited in 191 1, the 
quarry was equipped with one steam drill and a rock breaker. In 
recent years the output has been used on the estate of which the 
quarry is a part for road and foundation work. 

South of the main cut is an opening in a bluish and pink variety 
of gneiss. The blue is much jointed, while the pink gneiss appears 
to be very brittle. 

The Beekman quarry has supplied material for several structures 
in Tarrytown, including churches and other buildings. 

Kensico quarries 

The principal quarry development of recent date in the Yonkers 
gneiss is that of H. S. Kerbaugh, Inc., the contractor on the new 
Kensico reservoir which is to form a part of the Catskill water 
supply system. To increase the capacity of the reservoir, a dam 
that will be 100 feet" higher than the old structure and of corre- 
spondingly massive proportions is in course of erection at Valhalla 
at the south end of the reservoir. This structure is to consist of 
Yonkers gneiss obtained from an area explored to the east of the 
ridge, about one-half mile northeast of the dam. 

The geological features of the reservoir site have been presented 
by Berkey,^ who also investigated the various quarry materials of 
the vicinity with the view to their adaptability for use in the work. 
The Yonkers gneiss is an outlier of the main belt and is exposed 
on the ridge to the east of the reservoir, while the west side is made 
up of Manhattan schist, with Inwood limestone in concealed outcrop 
between the two. 

Berkey mentions several quarries in the vicinity that have not 
been previously noted. These include the Outlet quarry, 1500 
feet east of the northern extremity of the old reservoir; the Ferris 
quarry 1000 feet farther north ; and the Dinnan quarry 3000 feet 
north of the Outlet cjuarry. All these are in Yonkers gneiss or 
massive phases of that rock. In addition he mentions the Garden 
cjuarry, about midway of the reservoir and 500 feet east of its 
margin, opened in dioritic gneiss; the Smith cjuarry, less than 1000 

1 Geology of the New York City (Catskill) Aqueduct. N. Y. State 
Museum Bui. 146, 191 1, p. 191-200. 


feet east of the southern end of the reservoir, in a mixture of 
igneous and Fordham gneisses ; and the City quarr_v, on the eastern 
margin of the reservoir, also in i. mixed phase. 

The quarries from which the supply of stone for the dam is 
being obtained are apparently a new location, considerably south 
of the others in the Yonkers area. They are based on an exposure 
of several acres, thinly covered with soil which, when removed, 
shows glaciated but practically fresh rock at the surface. The first 
few inches from the surfaces show a slight brownish stain, but no 
marked decomposition. There are scattered inclusions of micaceous 
and hornblendic gneis':es, the former perhaps derived from the 
Fordham. For the most part, however, the area consists of Yonkers 
in quite uniform development, well suited for architectural or 
general construction purposes. There is some variation of texture 
which ranges from massive and medium or coarse-grained to finely 
granular foliated gneiss. The massive type appears in limited 
quantity. The foliation is in part a result of flowage when the 
mass was still in a viscous condition. Pegmatitic and aplitic phases 
of the rock are not infrequent, the two occurring in irregular 
patches rather than dikes. The pegmatite is distinguished by large 
red, perthitic feldspars and smoky quartz with more or less graphic 
intergrowth of the minerals. 

The jointing is widely spaced, as a rule, and no difficulty is found 
in obtaining blocks of any required size. The stone is quarried by 
drilling and blasting. The rough blocks are used for cyclopean 
masonry or are dressed to dimensions, while the liner material goes 
to the crushing plant which has been erected near the quarries. In 
the spring of 1913, work was in progress at two places. 

The average product of the quarries may be described as a 
grayish or brownish gray gneiss of medium to fine texture. The 
feldspars range from .5 mm to .3 mm in diameter. The composi- 
tion is that of a normal biotite granite, with microcline as the chief 
alkali feldspar. The feldspar and quartz are in nearly eciuidimen- 
sional grains, closely crowded, but not interpenetrating, as in some 
of 'the stronger granites. The even granular type seems to break 
diown more readily under the weather than the irregular grained 
Yonkers, but at this place there is little evidence of physical dis- 

Physical tests. The Yonkers gneiss from the Dinnan cj[uarry, of 
probably similar character to the stone in Ihe new quarries, was 
tested by J. L. Davis, of the New York City Board of Water Sup- 
ply. Two samples showed : specific gravity 2.64 ; ratio of absorp- 
tion .30 per cent and .39 per cent; porosity .87 per cent and i.oi 


per cent; weight for each culjic foot 163.3 '^ii'^l ^^i pounds; per- 
centage of water absorbed .30. The ratio of absorption and poros- 
ity are considerably higher than the figures obtained on the Yonkers 
gneiss of the Hackett quarries, which are given elsewhere. 


The Harrison diorite covers an area of several square miles 
within the towns of JNIamaroneck, Rye and Harrison, Westchester 
county. It forms two nearly parallel belts striking northeast and 
southwest, of which the easterly one extends along the sound from 
Port Chester to Milton Point and the westerly one, 2 or 3 miles 
inland, from the Connecticut line to near Larchmont station. The 
belts are only about a mile wide at most and show intrusive con- 
tacts with the Manhattan schist. Across the Connecticut border, 
they unite with a large area of the same rock that is known there 
as the Danbur}^ granodiorite. 

The rock has a well-marked gneissoid texture, which indicates 
that it was intruded before the igneous and sedimentary formations 
of this section were metamorphosed. The date of the intrusion, 
therefore, is earlier than the period of folding that came at the 
close of the Paleozoic and later than the Manhattan schist. The 
diorite resembles in composition the more acid members of the 
Cortlandt series, but its foliation indicates a separate and prior 
period of formation, for the Cortlandt rocks are practically un- 

Strictly speaking, the rock is a granodiorite, as in its general 
development, it shows affinity Avith the granites through the presence 
of quartz, and considerable alkali-feldspar. The quartz is in fine 
grains and has a smoky color. The feldspar includes a white 
plagioclase of andesine to labradorite composition and a nearly 
colorless microcline. Besides the fine granular feldspar of the 
groundmass, there are quite frequently porphyritic individuals which 
have been compressed into lenses or aiigen. These are made up of 
twin crystals. They measure up to an inch or so long and half that 
in width, but are more commonly of smaller dimensions. The 
longer axis and the twinning planes are parallel to the rock foliation. 
Biotite is the chief ferro-magnesian constituent, but is supplemented 
by a little hornblende. The biotite is plentiful, in scaly aggregates 
that interleave the quartz and feldspar. Parallel to the foliation 
thus produced, the rock breaks more or less readily and the result- 
ing surface is always much darker than the fractures across the 
foliation. Of smaller importance is garnet Which appears, in 

Plate 21 

Harrison diorite, characteristic foliated structure. Quarry Mamaroneck. 

Fordham gneiss, banded by lighter granitic material. Dublin quarry, 
Westchester co'unty. 



reddish grains, of irregular form, scattered through the ground- 
mass ; the grains are not conspicuous as they are seldom over 5 mm 
in diameter. 

The color of the diorite is dark gray, with a bluish tint. The 
hammered surface, which is the usual finish, shows lighter and is 
quite attractive. 

Paillace quarry 

The quarry operated by Faillace Brothers, of Mamaroneck, is on 
the north side of the New Haven Railroad, and a little west of the 
village. It is in the western of the two parallel belts. In the spring 
of 1912, it was the only active quarry in the diorite. 

The quarry is situated on the side of a low ridge, which has 
a northeasterly trend parallel to the general strike of the country 
rocks. The face is about 200 feet long, falling to 30 feet at either 
end. There is no sheet structure, Ibut a system of discontinuous 
joints, 6 or 8 feet apart, dips at a low angle to the south, parallel 
to the surface. The principal jointing strikes and dips with the 
foliation, that is, strikes northeast and dips northwest at an angle 
of 65°. There are also cross-fractures, but they maintain no 

The rock is a dark, very biotitic variety of the diorite, but rather 
more uniform in appearance than the average rock, and fairly 
free of knots or streaks of any kind. It carries porphyritic feld- 
spars, which are usually compressed into lenses, or completely 
granulated, and which may reach an inch in maximum diameter. 
The uncrushed individuals show simple twinning after the Carlsbad 
law. The body of the rock has a fine grain, the quartz and feldspar 
averaging about 2.5 mm across. Pink garnet is usually present in 
small scattered granular aggregates that are noticeable but not 
conspicuous. The rock has a fresh appearance which is confirmed 
by negative tests for carbonates with dilute hydrochloric acid. 

The quarry is equipped with two derricks. There is a crusher 
for using the waste. The principal product is rough and dressed 
blocks for building purposes, foundations, walls etc. The dressed 
material, for the most part, is finished with the patent-hammer. 
The stone is well suited for practically all purposes that do not 
require a light color or a fine finish. It is not susceptible, of course, 
to polishing. The waste is sold for. riprap or crushed at the 

Campbell quarry 

The Campbell quarry, which is the only one in the vicinity men- 
tioned by Eckel, has not been worked in the last four years. It is 


situated along the highway, just north of Larchmont station. As 
the vicinity is now a residential section, it is doubtful if work will 
again be started. 

The diorite is here massive or slightly foliated, and of lighter color 
than the average. It shows efifects of weathering in iron discolora- 
tion and clouding of feldspars. Pegmatitic segregations of the 
constituents are noticeable in places. The foliation strikes northeast 
and dips about 55° northwest, conforming to which is the principal 
joint system. 

The product of the quarry is stated to have been about 1000 cubic 
yards a year, mostly dressed stone. 

A quarry, owner unknown, is situated in the interval between the 
Campbell and Faillace quarries, southwest of Mamaroneck. It 
was not in operation in the spring of 1913, and apparently had been 
abandoned for several years. It shows a face 100 feet long on the 
strike of the diorite and from 20 to 35 feet high, with a width of 
50 feet. The structural features resemble those at the Faillace 
quarry. The rock is a dark gneissoid type, quite uniform as to 
composition and appearance. Pegmatite in small segregations and 
stringers is the only variation at all noticeable. There is no equip- 
ment on the property. The product seems to have been mainly 
dimension stone. 


The Fordham gneiss is a variable rock, or rather an assemblage 
of more or less contrasting types, which spread over an extensive 
area on the east side of the Hudson. It occurs in several belts that 
follow the general northeasterly structural trend and that have the 
Harlem river as their approximate southern boundary. In southern 
Westchester county, it borders the Yonkers on both sides, and a 
small strip continues along the eastern edge of the main Yonkers 
area to its northern end. Another belt is exposed along the Hudson 
from the Harlem river northward, occupying most of the first line 
of ridges that parallel the river. 

The Fordham is a banded gneiss, in which respect it differs from 
the Yonkers. This banding is caused by variation in mineral com- 
position, the lighter bands having less biotite than the darker ones. 
Some light bands are made up of nearly pure quartz, but usually 
there is a large proportion of feldspar. In the main, the rock may 
be classified as a biotite gneiss, composed of quartz, feldspar and 
biotite in fluctuating amounts. The feldspars are orthoclase, micro- 
cline and an acid plagioclase, the latter having the characteristics 
usually of oligoclase. The color is grayish and averages darker 



than the Yonkers, owing to the larger proportion of biotite. The 
texture indines to finely granular, except when injected by coarse 

With respect to the other gneisses and igneous rocks of this 
section, the Fordham occupies a basal position, so that its early 
Precambric age seems established. It is clearly intruded by the 
Yonkers. As it is made up largely of sedimentary material, it may 
be classed as Grenville, which is the position assigned to it by 

The sedimentary derivation of the gneiss is strongly suggested 
by the regularity and persistence of the banded structure, which 
resembles true stratification. Further evidence of this origin is 
found in the gradation into quartzite that is observable in places, 
and also by the bands, streaks and irregular masses of calcareous 
material which are included within the formation. These inclusions 
become of considerable importance in the northern extent of the 
Fordham and are seen not infrequently in Westchester county. 
The banding of the gneiss is referable in greater part to variations 
in the original sediments which are believed to have been of the 
nature of impure limestones, shales and shaly sandstones. 

Granitic and pegmatitic injections have taken place in parts of 
the Fordham along the planes of foliation. The igneous material 
may form thin bands or veins that alternate more or less regularly 
with the gneiss, with sharp contacts ; or it may impregnate the 
body of the gneiss itself. Occasional dikes of these rocks cut across 
the bedding. 

Physical character and composition. The gneiss is medium to 
dark gray in color, with a pinkish tone when there is much granitic 
mixture. The banding is its most striking feature. By reason of 
the parallel arrangement of the biotite, the dark bands partake of 
a certain degree of schistosity, cleaving or breaking rather readily 
along the foliation. The most persistent joints follow the foliation. 
These are variably spaced, from a few inches apart, where the 
gneiss has been crumpled or shattered, to several feet in the un- 
contorted rock. 

The texture of the gneiss is fairly even but extremely fine. The 
diameter of the feldspar particles ranges from .25 to 3 mm, and 
the quartz is only slightly larger. The feldspar in most places shows 
incipient kaolinization, but otherwise there is little alteration notice- 
able. The biotite is somewhat bleached and the iron set free is 
segregated in the cracks and sutures. Muscovite and hornblende 
are usually present in small amounts. 


An average sample of Fordham gneiss taken from the Nichols 
quarry, showed a specific gravity of 2.66. The ratio of absorption 
was .165 per cent and pore space .438 per cent. 

Quarry development. There are only a few active quarries in 
the Fordham belts. The variability and foliated structure of the 
gneiss operate against its extended use as building material. Still 
the Dublin and Hastings quarries have furnished considerable build- 
ing stone, selected from the coarsely jointed ledges, which has given 
good satisfaction so far as concerns durability. Its principal sale 
is in rough blocks for foundation work and crushed for concrete 
and roads. As a road material it is rather inferior, owing to its 
tendency to split in platy pieces. 

There are quarry sites at Uniontown, Bryn Mawr, Lowerre and 
Fordham, from which no stone has been taken in recent years. 
The Uniontown quarry, according to Eckel, was worked for rough 
stone for one of the Warburton avenue bridges. It yielded a con- 
torted gneiss inferior to that worked in the present quarries. 

Near Bryn Mawr, two small openings in the Fordham are found 
on Palmer avenue, near Fort Field reservoir. The eastermost is 
stated by Eckel to yield a crumpled, poor grade of stone. The 
westerly opening shows a better quality which is exemplified in the 
walls and gatehouse of the reservoir. Some of the rock was crushed 
for macadam. 

The Lowerre quarries were opened in 1898. The gneiss here 
shows granite veinings and is intersected by a pegmatite dike. 
Rough foundation stone has been the principal product. 

The Fordham quarries were situated just south of that place 
and west of the Harlem railroad. They furnished crushed stone 
mostly, used for railroad ballast. Their sites are now occupied by 

Reilly quarry 

The Reilly quarry, owned and for many years operated by 
Patrick Reilly, is one of the more prominent ones for the production 
of building stone. It is situated at Dublin, southwest of Tarrytown, 
about i^ miles east of the river. For the last three years the 
property has been leased to Thomas Murphy of Irvington. 

The rock at this place is a hard, banded gray gneiss with a 
considerable proportion of igneous material. Seams and bunches 
of granite and pegmatite are common. The foliation and banding 
strike N. 30° E. and dip 80° southeast. The bedding joints are 
rather widely spaced, so that thick blocks are obtainable. A hori- 


zontal system of joints is present. The quarry was formerly worked 
in two faces, one 30 feet and the other 50 feet high, but of late 
years the stone has been taken out without much method. The 
opening is about 200 feet long and has been extended about an 
equal distance back from the highway. The stone is hauled to 
Irvington, a distance of 2 miles, for shipment. It is chiefly sold on 
contract, so that operations are somewhat irregular. 

The principal structures in which the stone from this quarry has 
entered are the Rockefeller and Archbold residences at Tarrytown. 

Duell & Holloway quarry 

The firm of Duell & Holloway, of Tarrytown, owns a quarry 
near Glenville, 2 miles southeast of the former town, which appears 
to be situated in the Fordham gneiss. The rock is fine grained, 
grayish and irregularly banded. The darker seams contain abund- 
ant biotite and hornblende, the latter more prominent than is usual 
with this gneiss. The texture is firmly knit, almost like that of 
granite, and the stone is hard and tough. It shows no marked 
tendency to split into tabular blocks, as in fact the foliation, so 
marked in the average Fordham, is quite obscure in the hand 
specimens from this quarry. The feldspars which are mainly 
under 2.5 mm diameter, belong mostly to orthoclase and oligoclase, 
the former cloudy and micasized, and the latter less altered, but 
showing effects of compression. 

The banded structure and foliation strike N. 50° E. and dip 
about 30° southeast. A system of nearly vertical joints is very 
closely spaced so as to make the product more suitable for crush- 
ing than for building purposes. The horizontal set of joints is 
less in evidence. Granite seams occur irregularly parallel to the 

The quarry opening extends about 900 feet in the longer direc- 
tion. There is little method apparent in the operations, as the 
principal object has been to break down the stone at the least pos- 
sible expense without reference to the production of dimension 
material. The output is employed mainly for crushed stone which 
is sold in the vicinity. 

Nichols quarry 

The Nichols quarry, situated southeast of Hastings, on the road 
to Unionville, is a continuation of the old Lefurgy's quarry which 
at the time of Eckel's report was one of the principal quarries in 
the Fordham gneiss. The quarry is worked by W. H. Nichols, 


of Hastings. The opening extends about 300 feet on the strike of 
the gneiss, which is nearly north and south; it is about 100 feet 
wide and the face on the west side about 30 feet. The quality 
of the rock exposed in the quarry is somewhat variable. The best 
quality is found in the west side where a massive gray gneiss is 
quarried for building stone, in blocks that measure up to 10 feet 
long and 4 to 6 feet in section. Through the middle of the quarry 
runs a band about 18 feet wide of a darker, seamed, or contorted 
gneiss. There is more or less granitic admixture with the gneiss, 
but this is not usually injurious to the strength or appearance of 
the stone. 

Besides the bedding joints that run with the foliation and dip 
80° east, there are two well-developed sets at right angles to the 
foliation, the one dipping 80° south and the other 35*^ north. 

Microscopic examination of the gneiss from this quarry shows 
the mineral composition to be like that described for the typical 
Fordham. The texture is even grained for the most part, and 
very fine, with indistinct banding. The feldspar and quartz par- 
ticles average under 1.5 mm and the biotite scales are of about the 
same diameter. There is only an occasional shred of hornblende. 
Among the accessory constituents is zoisite in small rounded grains. 
Sulphides are absent. The only mark of alteration is a slight 
clouding of the feldspar, due to incipient kaolinization. The speci- 
mens showed no effervescence with muriatic acid. 

A hand derrick and Steam drill comprise the quarry equipment. 
The blocks are loosened from the ledge by drilling deep holes and 
loading with black powder, after which they are broken up by hand 
drilling. The stone is sold rough and dressed for building and 
foundation work. The waste is sold as crushed stone for macadam. 

Fenano quarry 

A quarry in Tuckahoe has been operated for several years past 
by Nicholas Fenano. The rock is a compact bluish or grayish 
gneiss of the Fordham type, but somewhat contorted and broken 
by numerous joints. The opening is about 200 feet long on the 
strike of the gneiss and shows a face of 40^ feet. The strike of 
the beds is north and south and the dip vertical. Most of the 
product has been sold as crushed stone, the larger blocks only being 
utilized for foundation or building work. The ledge has been 
worked nearly down to the street level and it is probable that the 
quarry will soon be converted to other use. 





The Manhattan schist which underhes the island of Manhattan 
and extends northward into the Bronx and Westchester county 
has no great importance as a quarry stone. Its foHation, variable 
composition and thinly jointed character are against its general use 
for architectural purposes or for cut stone, though it has been em- 
ployed quite extensively for walls and rough masonry where 
readily available. In a few places, specially in the vicinity of plu- 
tonic intrusives which have invaded and injected the schist, thereby 
rendering it more massive and compact, it has found some sale for 
building stone. 

The schist, like the Fordham gneiss, is a metamorphosed sedi- 
ment ; in its original form probably a shale. In the field there 
is a close resemblance between the two, though stratigraphically 
they are separated by both the Lowerre quartzite and the Inwood 
limestone. A comparison of typical samples of the schist and 
gneiss shows, however, that the former is more micaceous and 
carries less of the feldspars than the Fordham. The mica in both 
is mostly biotite, but in the Manhattan schist there is also con- 
siderable muscovite. The feldspathic constituents are generally 
subordinate to the cjuartz. 

The color of the ^lanhattan schist is gray, medium to dark, the 
lightest being the injected phases. Foliation is marked, owing to 
the abundance of mica, and follows apparently the original stratifi- 
cation. Crumpled and thin- jointed types are common. 

The schist is intruded by dikes and small bosses of granite and 
occasionally of diorite and more basic rocks. In their vicinity, 
but especially near the granitic intrusives, it is likely to change con- 
siderably in appearance and composition. Through the injection 
by granite, it develops into a feldspathic rock which resembles a 
banded gneiss or, when the schist is more thoroughly absorbed, 
it becomes fairly uniform and cjuite massive, not unlike the granite 
itself. vSuch mixed phases are too numerous to require separate 
mention. Merrill has noted their occurrence also in connection with 
the diorite intrusions north and east of New Rochelle. 

Besides mica, quartz and feldspar, the schist contains a number 
of accessory minerals like garnet, sillimanite, titanite and mag- 
netite. The texture is generally fine, even granular, but may be- 
come porphyritic near igneous conta-ts through the development 
of large feldspars'. The rock possesses no features that are objec- 
tionable to its general employment for construction purposes, ex- 
cept its somewhat variable appearance and foliation. The mica 


which is in the scales arranged parallel to the foliation makes it 
readily cleavable and is a source of weakness if proper care is not 
used in laying the stone. It should not be placed, of course, on 
edge, as the effects of water and frost are greatly accentuated 
if the foliation is thus exposed. 

There are no permanent quarries in the Manhattan schist. Most 
use of this stone has been made in foundation and retaining walls 
on Manhattan island and much of the material has been taken from 
excavations on building sites. The local operations, therefore, do 
not call for special mention. 


The belt of Precambric gneisses which enters southwestern Rock- 
land county from New Jersey, forming the massive ridges of the 
Ramapo mountains, contains several quarries around Sufifern and 
Ramapo which have supplied building stone for local uses and to 
some extent for shipment. The gneisses are pink or gray and 
carry hornblende or biotite as the iron-magnesia mineral. In gen- 
eral composition they resemble granite, being composed mainly of 
acid feldspar and quartz. They range from foliate, thinly bedded 
types to heavily jointed massive examples. The latter, of course, 
are better adapted for all constructional work, in which they take 
the place of true granite. They are intersected by vertical joints 
of which there is usually a system running nearly north-south and 
a second at about right angles. 

The quarry sites are situated along the Erie Railroad between 
Suffern and Ramapo. One of the principal openings, but idle 
for many years, lies on the ridge south of Ramapo and west of 
the railroad tracks. The rock is a hornblende gneiss of massive 
character, reddish in color. Smock mentions the quarry as having 
furnished building and monumental stone, as well as material for 
many of the Erie Railroad bridges. 

A quarry near Hillburn was worked by Rice Brothers up to the 
year 1904. The output consisted of building, monumental and 
rough stone. 


Several granite intrusions are found in the southwestern part 
of Orange county, near the New Jersey state line. Two of these 
constitute rather large bosses that rise into the conspicuous twin 
peaks Mounts Adam and Eve, at the edge of the " Drowned Lands " 


of the Wallkill river. Both are made up of a coarse hornblende 
granite, somewhat gneissoid in places and showing pegmatitic and 
aplitic variations. Mount Eve, the larger boss, occupies an area 
about 2 miles long and a mile wide. Mount Adam is a nearly round 
mass, about one-half of a mile in diameter. There are small knobs 
of the same granite near Big island, just northeast of Mount Eve 
and also in the section southwest, along the general axis of the 
main intrusion. 

Pochuck mountain, a broad ridge which lies principally in New 
Jersey, consists of Precambric gneiss broken here and there by 
granite. On the northeastern end, the part within New York 
State, the easterly slopes are formed by a coarse, quite massive, 
hornblende granite, but the western half is made up of biotite 
gneiss. The granite is lighter in color than that just mentioned 
but its mineral composition is similar and it may be of related 

The section of the Highlands in the vicinity of these intrusions 
possesses much interest to the geologist. The contact zones between 
the granites and the bordering limestones are especially notable and 
have long been a favorite collecting ground from which much ma- 
terial has found its way into museums. The geological features 
of this section are set forth in numerous papers and reports, the 
more recent being those by Kemp and Hollick ^ and by Ries.^ 

Quarries on Mount Adam and Mount Eve 

Practically the same kind of granite is exposed on the two knobs, 
Mount Adam and Mount Eve, and they belong no doubt to a single 
intrusion, though separated by a belt of crystalline limestone. 
Mount Eve, the larger knob, rises to an altitude of 1057 feet above 
sea level; its greatest axis in the direction northeast-southwest is 
about 2 miles. Mount Adam, which is really a spur on its western 
flank, measures little more than one-half of a mile in diameter, 
with a summit about loo feet below that of Mount Eve. Smaller 
knobs of the granite are found at Big island, just north of Mount 
Eve and on the eastern and southern borders of the mountain. 

The granite resembles that from Pochuck mountain in general 
character and composition. It belongs to the hornblende granites. 

1 The Granite at Mounts Adam and Eve and Its Contact Phenomena, 
N. Y. Acad. Sci. Annals VII, 638. 

2 Report on the Geology of Orange County, N. Y. State Museum Rep't 49, 
2, 1895. 


but contains some biotite. It has a coarse texture, as seen at the 
quarries, and in color is a medium gray with bhiish or greenish 
tints which arise from the variable appearance of the feldspar 
crystals. These measure from 5 to 15 mm in diameter. Though 
generally massive, the granite shows local phases characterized by a 
parallel or gneissic arrangement of the constituents, as is well ex- 
hibited on the north side of Mount Eve. Pegmatitic variations are 
rather frequent, especially on Mount Adam, where also the normal, 
coarse, grayish granite gives way in places to a finer grained and 
much darker dioritic rock. This lack of uniformity constitutes a 
serious drawback to the opening of quarries in many parts of the 

The quarry localities are on the north slope of Mount Adam and 
the western slope of Mount Eve. The Mount Adam quarry, 
according to Smock, was opened in 1889 by the Amount Adam 
Granite Co. of Middletown. It has long since been abandoned. 
The workings have a total length of 250 feet arid a face from 20 to 
30 feet high. There are two grades of rock exposed, the one con- 
sisting of the usual coarse hornblende granite, and the other of 
finer grain with little hornblende, forming streaks and patches in 
the first. Feldspathic and pegmatitic seams are present. The joint- 
ing is divided into three systems. Two strike north-south and dip 
about 70° in opposite directions, the third strikes N. 45° E. and 
dips 55° southeast. No equipment is found on the property. The 
quarry lies about one-half of a mile north of the railroad to which 
the stone was formerly hauled over a private road. 

The Mount Eve quarries were opened about 1890, at the same 
time as those on Pochuck mountain and by the same company. 
They are situated a little way up the western slope, in the notch 
between the two knobs. They have likewise been abandoned and 
the equipment removed from the property. The granite is less 
broken than on Mount Adam and shows riiore uniformity of 
character. It was worked quite extensively for dimension stone 
which was shipped to Orange, N. J., and other places. The work- 
ings at present are so heavily overgrown with bushes as scarcely 
to permit inspection. The nearest point of shipment on the rail- 
road is about i^j miles distant. 

Microscopic characters. The petrography of the granite is 
described in detail in the paper by Kemp and HoUick, already 
cited, from which the following information is abstracted. The 
principal dark mineral is hornblende, but there is more or less biotite 


associated with it, as well as some pyroxene. The feldspars in- 
clude orthoclase, microcline and microperthite among the alkali 
varieties. Plagioclase is represented in amount quite equal to the 
others, so that the composition approaches a diorite. The quartz 
carries abundant inclusions but otherwise is not especially remark- 
able. Less important constituents are titanite, zircon, magnetite 
and allanite, the last being quite common in the granite from both 

Pochuck Mountain quarries 

The principal quarry working in the Pochuck granite area is situ- 
ated just north of the State boundary and on the east side of the 
mountain. It is reached by the branch railroad that connects Pine 
Island on the main line with Glenwood, N. J. It was opened about 
1890. The property was developed and worked by the Empire 
State Granite Co., but has been inoperative for the last four or 
five years. Building stone and paving blocks were quarried. Among 
the structures in which the granite has been used are the post office 
and the Hinchcliffe brewery at Patterson, N. J. 

The quarry is opened for a distance of 200 feet along the moun- 
tain and has a face from 30 to 40 feet high. The excavation is 
insufficient to show the general rock structures. There appears, 
however, to be no well-defined sheeting. 

A second smaller quarry has been opened a little south of this 
property, but is also idle at present. It belongs to P. J. Carlin of 
New York City. The granite is of the same general character as 
that in the Empire State quarry. 

The granite from this locality has a coarse texture, varying from 
massive to slightly foliate, and a pink body that is mottled with 
gray and black. The general color effect is pinkish gray of medium 
shade. The feldspars measure about 10 mm and the black aggre- 
gates of hornblende and biotite from 5 to 10 mm in diameter. 
The granite in hand specimen shows no weathering or discoloration. 

Microscopic examination. The feldspars, which are the most 
prominent constituents, include microcline, microperthite and ortho- 
clase of pink color and a whitish soda-lime variety, all in practically 
unaltered state though somewhat fractured by compression. Quartz 
is next in amount. The hornblende greatly predominates over 
biotite and is a strongly pleochroic, dark green to brown variety, 
showing slight chloritization. Large crystals of titanite are included 
in the dark aggregates of hornblende and biotite. Zircon, apatite, 
magnetite and biotite are present in small quantity. The absence of 
carbonates is indicated by hydrochloric acid tests. 


Chemical analysis. The following analysis was reported by the 
Empire State Granite Co. in reply to a request from the State 
Museum dated in 1904. The analysis was made in the laboratories 
of Simonds & Wainwright of New York : 

SiO. 66.12 

AI2O3 13.71 

Fe.03 I 

FeO j ^-42 

MgO 1. 15 

CaO 3.45 

Na=0 3.6i 

K.0 4.31 

H2O 87 

S .07 

MnO tr 


Physical tests. Compression tests of the granites from this 
quarry, made by Prof. P. J. Carlin, showed an ultimate strength 
of 23,500 pounds to the square inch in one sample and 22,900 pounds 
in a second sample. Gravity and absorption tests by the writer 
gave: Specific gravity, 2.74; ratio of absorption, .148 per cent; 
pore space .402 per cent. 

West Point gneiss quarries 

The notable collection of buildings at West Point affords an 
example of the architectural use of local stone to good advantage, 
an example that might be profitably followed more frequently per- 
haps than is usual in this section, although there are not a few 
instances of the adaptation of native quarry materials to be found in 
the Highland region. The larger structures at-West Point, including 
the new chapel, the power plant, riding hall and several others, 
are built of dark gray gneiss that is found on the side of the ridge 
to the west of the academy grounds. The quarries are worked only 
as the need develops from time to time, being used only to supply 
the local rec[uirements. There are several openings, but the prin- 
cipal one from which building stone has been quarried of late years 
is near the north end of the ridge and somewhat above the main 
level of the academy site. The gneiss is quite fresh at the surface 
which shows the efifects of glacial erosion in deep scorings and 
polished surfaces. It is a coarsely jointed biotite gneiss, veined and 
broken by a more massive granite. The two rocks vary much in 
proportion from place to place and there is every gradation between 

Plate 22 

Porphyritic granite. Horicon, Warren county 

^ '""^'i:' 

' **• 

M. v.i_J: 

Pegmatitic granite. Orange county 


the thinly fohate gneiss and the massive granite. Within the Hmits 
of one quarry, however, material is found that is fairly uniform. 
It fills all the requirements for rock faced ashlar, as it is strong, 
durable and quite attractive if somewhat somber of tone. 

Pegmatitic granite in Orange county 

Within the Precambric belt of Orange county, which includes 
most of the Highlands area west of the Hudson river, occur numer- 
ous outcrops of coarse, reddish granite of pegmatitic nature. This 
rock is dififerentiated from the surrounding gneisses that form the 
main mass of the Highlands by its coarser grain and also by its 
more massive appearance, never showing the well-developed par- 
allel arrangement characteristic of the latter. The feldspars reach 
a diameter of an inch or even more when uncrushed, and are 
inclosed in a finer mixture of granular feldspar and quartz, so as 
to lend the aspect of a porphyritic rock. The feldspar in the ground- 
mass is the result largely of the breaking down of the larger in- 
dividuals under compression, the uncrushed remnants having a 
rounded or lenticular cross-section. The predominant variety is 
red microcline, but there is also more or less of white or greenish 
plagioclase. Of dark silicates the rqck carries very little ordinarily. 
On the other hand, magnetite is a common ingredient, and epidote 
appears quite often as an alteration product. By reason of the 
varied colors imparted by the feldspar, magnetite and epidote the 
granite not infrequently possesses ornamental qualities which make 
it serviceable for decorative work and it has been employed locally 
for that purpose in fireplaces, mantels etc. Unfortunately it does 
not occur in large enough bodies to be quarried on a commercial 
scale. ■ 

The granite may be seen in the form of stringers, dikes and 
irregular bodies which intersect the gneiss and are probably ofif- 
shoots of some magma that has penetrated the country rocks from 
below at a time when the metamorphism of the latter had been 
completed. The same magma is possibly represented in the bosses 
of granite outcropping on Mount Adam, Mount Eve and Pochuck 
mountain in southern Orange county. The magnetite mines are 
situated mainly in belts of gneiss that have been injected by the 
granite, and afford good specimens of the fresh material. At the 
Forest of Dean mine back of West Point a very attractive variety 
occurs in contact with the magnetite, and there is a large amount 
of it on the mine dump. 




Traps or diabase dikes occur in great numbers in the main 
Adirondack region, though they are very unequally distributed. 
They occur with greatest frequency in the eastern and northern 
parts, embraced in Essex, southwestern Clinton and southern Frank- 
lin counties. As they were intruded during the Precambric they 
are not found outside the area underlain by the crystalline forma- 
tions — the gneisses, schists, crystalline limestones and plutonic 
igneous masses ; but they may be looked for in any of the rocks 
just named. 

The Precambric area of Essex and Clinton counties includes 
numerous examples of the dikes, so many that their separate occur- 
rence has hardly seemed worthy of note in the geological reports 
dealing with this section. They are particularly in evidence in the 
vicinity of the iron mines at Hammondville, Mineville, Ausable 
Forks, Lyon Mountain and in the Saranac valley ; but are probably 
no more frequent there than elsewhere in the same region; they 
are simply better exposed. The writer has noted more than a 
hundred such dikes in these districts. They all present very similar 
features of physical development, consisting typically of feldspar, 
pyroxene and magnetite with the peculiar diabase texture which 
arises from the inclusion of the pyroxene within the meshes formed 
by the interlacing feldspar laths. As a rule they are fairly fresh at 
the surface and give a metallic ring when struck with the hammer. 
They have the tabular form characteristic of fissure intrusions and 
are seldom more than a few feet thick though persistent on the 
line of strike. Their prevailing direction is from north to north- 
east in conformity with the main structural trend of the inclosing 
rocks. The trap is well suited for road material on account of 
its toughness and wearing qualities, but the occurrences so far dis- 
covered are scarcely of sufficient size to justify quarry work. Dikes 
over 15 feet thick are very rare and of those seen by the writer a 
thickness of 30 or 40 feet represents about the maximum. They 
have a steep dip, usually nearly vertical, so that their quarrying 
would be difficult and relatively expensive. 

A more available material for local road building in the Adiron- 
dacks is found in the areas of gabbro and basic syenite. The latter, 
normally a feldspathic rock, develops in places into a very dark 
material with abundant iron-magnesia minerals and magnetite, 
which closely resembles and even grades into the gabbros. The 


latter are almost identical in mineral composition with the diabase 
trap. Like these they are very tough resistant rocks, but normally 
are coarser grained and consequently would not wear so evenly 
under abrasive conditions. The gabbros occur in dikes, larger than 
those in which the diabase is found, but more frecpently they form 
rounded and irregular masses or stocks from a few hundred square 
feet to several acres and even miles in area. They are very common 
in Essex county within the Lake Champlain drainage area where 
their occurrence in part is well shown on the Elizabethtown-Port 
Henry geologic sheet. -^ 

The texture of the gabbros and syenites varies from coarse to 
fine, the finer sorts being on the borders of the areas, where the 
magmas were subject to cjuick chill. Li these border places are to 
be found the most suitable material for crushed stone. Some of 
the gabbros exhibit textures very similar to the trap, their feldspar 
being in lath-shaped crystals which form a network that incloses 
the pyroxene in the meshes. Such border phases are practically 
ecjuivalent to the diabases and should prove equally serviceable 
as materials for crushed stone of the best quality. 

Numerous chemical analyses of the Adirondack traps, gabbros 
and syenites have been published in the geologic reports of this 


An outlier of the Adirondack crystalline rocks occurs in the 
Mohawk valley at Little Falls where quarries for the supply of 
crushed stone and, to a smaller extent, of building material have 
been operated for many years. The situation is very advantageous 
for extraction and marketing of stone as the area is crossed by 
two main railroad lines and the Erie canal, and there are bare rock 
ledges close at hand which afford good quarry sites. The rocks 
are principally adapted for road, concrete and foundation work, 
being rather dark for use in buildings. They include a fine-grained 
syenite which occupies most of the area, reddish granite and trap, 
the last occurring in a dike over 100 feet wide — the largest known 
in the southern Adirondacks. 

The Little Falls outlier has been mapped and described by H. P. 
Gushing in connection with his report on the " Geology of the Little 
Falls Quadrangle " (N. Y. State Museum Bulletin 'j']). It consists 
of a single area of these Precambric crystallines that outcrops within 

1 Included in N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 138. 

2 See especially Museum bulletins 95 and 138. 


the gorge of the Mohawk at that place and extends eastward for 
nearly 2 miles; the syenite forms the first lines of cliffs on either 
side, rising to a maximum of about 200 feet above the river, above 
which is a second steep scarp consisting of the exposed edges of 
Ordovician limestones whose base rests unconformably upon the 

The Little Falls syenite has a dark green to nearly black color, 
changing to yellowish or brownish on weathered surfaces. The 
texture is mostly fine granular, the result of mashing after intrusion. 
There are occasional feldspar " augen " in the midst of the com- 
minuted minerals which may be taken as evidence that it once 
possessed a much coarser grain. Over much of the area it has 
a mashed gneissoid appearance and is thinly jointed, the joints caus- 
ing a platy structure in places like that of a schist. There has been 
some infiltration of iron oxides along the joints and locally these 
extend into the body of the rock, filling the minute cracks and 
pore spaces and changing the color to a brick red. 

In composition, the rock varies considerably from place to place 
and in many samples of the outcropping portion shows a wide 
departure from the syenitic type. In the eastern section, the mass 
develops very dark basic phases which are close to gabbro in min- 
eral composition and in the hand specimen much resemble a fine- 
grained gabbro. Such phases occur along the tracks of the Dolge- 
ville railroad, near the quarries of the Syenite Trap Rock Co. The 
feldspar constituents, however, belong to the alkali varieties, with 
subordinate amounts of lime-soda feldspar of andesine or oligoclase 
type, so that the material can not be classed as gabbro. Quartz is 
also present, as it is elsewhere in considerable abundance. The 
dark minerals include hornblende, hypersthene, biotite and garnet. 
Among minor ingredients are apatite, quartz, titanite, magnetite and 
pyrite. In the more acid phases, there is about 75 per cent of 
feldspar, chiefly microperthite, about 10 per cent of quartz and be- 
tween 10 and 15 per cent of the iron-magnesia minerals. The basic 
examples carry as much as 50 per cent of the latter ingredients. 

Throughout the exposure occur scattered patches and bodies of 
a reddish granitic rock, some of which seem to be in the nature of 
inclusions, rather than dikes. Such are found in the north face of 
the Trap Rock Company's quarry. Cushing regards the red granite 
found in the western section around Little Falls as intrusive in 
the syenite. 


Chemical analysis. The following is an analysis of the Little 
Falls syenite extracted from N. Y. State Museum Bulletin 115, the 
analyst being E. W. Morley : 

SiO. 66.72 

• AI.O3 16.15 

Fe203 1.23 

FeO 2.19 

MgO 7Z 

CaO 2 . 30 

Na^O 4.36 

K2O 5-66 

H,0 77 

MnO .07 

The analysis is undoubtedly based on samples of the more quartz- 
ose rock. 

Physical tests. Numerous tests of the Little Falls syenite have 
been made by the bureau of research, State Department of High- 
ways. The following table gives the maximum and minimum and 
average results of eleven different tests : 

Maximum Average 

Specific gravity 2.93 2.75 2.80 

Weight pounds for each cubic foot 183 172 175 

Absorption, pounds for each cubic foot .21 .09 . 15 

Per cent of wear 4 2.6 3.3 

Hardness 18.4 17.8 18. i 

Toughness 14 8.5 11. 7 

Diabase dike. The dike that has been mentioned as intersecting 
the syenite is found in a slight depression of the surface about 
1000 feet west of the Syenite Trap Rock quarry. It shows also in 
the face of the cliffs above the Dolgeville railroad cut and can be 
traced thence northeasterly toward the Little Falls road, but is 
concealed near the road itself if it reaches that far. The dike has 
been intruded along the course of the main jointing which here 
is N. 30° E. ; the map in Cushing's bulletin, however, indicates the 
strike as nearly east and west. Within the exposed section, it 
measures about 125 feet in width, which may be taken as about 
the actual thickness. It thus could be quarried without difficulty. 
It ranges from very fine, even, glassy texture near the contact to 
a rather coarse grain with porphyritic feldspars an inch or so long 
in the interior of the body. Though somewhat altered in the out- 
crop, pieces give a metallic ring when struck, like a hard trap. Its 
mineral composition may be described as consisting of plagioclase, 
augite and magnetite, with secondary serpentine and chlorite. 


Syenite Trap Rock Company's quarry 

The Syenite Trap Company's quarry is situated i^ miles east 
of Little Falls on the north side of the river and New York Central 
tracks. It was opened about ten years ago on an extensive scale 
for the purpose of supplying crushed stone for highway, canal and 
railroad construction. The present quarry cut is nearly 1500 feet 
long with a face of about 60 feet as a maximum. The stone is 
quite massive in appearance and is less broken by joints than in 
most of the exposure. It is extremely tough and resistant in the 
quarry, showing qualities that fit it for heavy service. The crush- 
ing plant is built on the side of the cliffs, the stone passing through 
the successive crushers and screens by gravity into the storage bin 
from which it can be loaded directly into cars. The plant has a 
capacity of from 800 to 1000 tons a day. 

An interesting feature, though of some inconvenience to quarry 
operations, is the presence of numerous pot holes, both on top and 
side of the: syenite cliffs, which attain a diameter of 30 or 40 feet 
in some instances. They are filled with transported boulders and 
pebbles of various rocks, many beautifully rounded and polished. 
They occur up to 200 feet nearly above the bed of the present river. 
A pot hole about 70 feet in diameter was encountered in the ex- 
cavation for the new locks at Little Falls. 

Little Falls Stone Company's quarry 

The site of the Little Falls Stone Company's quarry is on the 
south side of the Mohawk, opposite the quarries just described. 
The syenite is exposed as a ledge for a distance of 800 feet in an 
east-west direction, with a face about 50 feet high in the center, 
sloping off somewhat toward either end. The rock is rather 
variable in structure, ranging from a platy schistose type, badly 
broken up, to a massive, heavily jointed material that has no definite 
cleavage. The quarry was opened for the supply of crushed stone 
for cement blocks. A large plant was erected near the quarry for 
making blocks, but has not been operated for the last four years 
and the quarries also have been idle during that time. 


The Saratoga Trap Rock Co. has a quarry in the town of Green- 
field, 3 miles northwest of Saratoga Springs. The rock is a fine- 
grained diabase, occurring in a dike which strikes N. 20° E. and 
extends across the line of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad 


(Adirondack branch). The dike is notable for its continuity along 
the strike, although its thickness is nowhere very great, being about 
60 feet from wall to wall in the quarry opening. It can be traced 
northward beyond the railroad by occasional exposures for over 
one-half of a mile and finally branches into two or three smaller 
dikes. The section south of the railroad is fully as long. The dike 
stands nearly vertical and cuts through a garnetiferous schist. 
The openings are just south of the railroad and east of the north- 
south highway. An examination of the diabase under the micro- 
scope shows that the mineral constituents are pyroxene, feldspar and 
magnetite in the order of their importance. The minerals are 
somewhat decomposed by weathering, though in hand specimen the 
rock appears hard and has a metallic ring. 


Several dikes of trap are found on the ridge east of the canal, 
near Fort Ann. They are of small size, though their occurrence 
so near shipping facilities has given them economic interest and 
led to active quarrying in one case. The Champlain Stone and 
Sand Co. operated a crushing plant for a short time about 1907. 
The dikes are the usual diabase, with pyroxene, feldspar and 
magnetite as the principal constituents. Specimens examined by 
the writer showed slight decomposition but not sufficient probably 
to affect materially the wearing quality of the ^tone for road uses. 


A great boss of igneous rocks, mainly of the dark basic kinds, 
is found in northern Westchester county, just south of Peekskill. 
It covers a large part of the town of Cortlandt, having an area of 
about 25 square miles, rounded in outline and extending along the 
Hudson river for some distance on its western border. The in- 
trusion has been described at length by J. D. Dana and G. H. Wil- 
liams. More recently G. Sherburne Rogers^ has published a very 
detailed account of the geology and petrography of the rock series, 
with many chemical analyses and a map showing the distribution 
of the different types. 

According to Rogers's investigations, the intrusives consist of a 
complex of rocks of which the largest element is the norites, but 
including also gabbro, pyroxenite, peridotite, hornblendite, dior- 

1 Geology of the Cortlandt Series and Its Emery Deposits. N. Y. Acad. 
Sci. Annals, v. xxi, 191 1. 


ite and syenite. The variuus roek types are the differentiated 
products of a hasic magma which was intruded in late Paleozoic 
time. It is thought that the Mohegan granite may represent the 
acid extreme of the series, although occupying a rather isolated 
position to the northeast of the basic intrusives. At any rate the 
granite has the same relations to the surrounding formations which 
consist principally of Manhattan schist. 

There are no active quarries within the area and the only min- 
eral product now worked is emery, which is found in small lenses 
and pockets near the borders. The rocks are too heavy and dark in 
color for building stone. It would appear, however, from observa- 
tions by the writer that there are numerous opportunities for the 
quarrying of road material of good quality. The fine-grained 
gabbros and norites particularly seem well adapted for the purpose, 
being closely knit, tough materials, very similar to diabase in their 
composition. The best ledges, however, are found in the interior 
at some distance from the railroad and the Hudson river. The 
rocks in places are cjuite heavily charged with pyrjtic minerals 
as indicated by their rapid weathering with the formation of a 
reddish clayey soil. The pyritic zones are probably localized and 
do not seriously affect the quality of the material as a whole. 

Analyses of representative types of the Cortlandt gabbros and 
norites are given herewith. No. i is gabbro, southeast of Salt Hill, 
H. T. Vulte, analyst. No. 2 is norite, i^^ miles south of Peekskill. 
S. S. Rogers, analyst. 

I 2 
















99.34 100.72 

















• 31 




• 15 




Fig. 12 Map of the trap outcrops in Rockland county, after Kiimmel. 
I, Suffern; 2, West Nyack ; 3, Mt Ivy; 4 Rockland lake; 5, Nyack; 6, Haver- 
straw quarry sites. 



The Palisades of the Hudson are the outcropping edge of an 
intrusion of diabase or trap, the largest anywhere in the State and, 
by reason of its accesible position, the most valuable for the pro- 
duction of crushed stone. The intrusion altogether is some 60 or 
70 miles long north and south, and its width within the Rockland 
county section ranges from one-eighth of a mile to over 2 miles. 

The diabase is in the form of a sheet which has ascended along 
the inclined beds of Triassic sandstone and shale. The dip of the 
beds is toward the west and northwest at an angle of from 5° to 
15°. In this direction the diabase soon disappears and becomes 
buried under an increasing burden of sediments. The thickness of 
the sheet is several hundred feet at least and in places may be 
around 1000 feet. Although it follows in general the bedding of the 
stratified rocks, it is observed in places to cut diagonally across the 
beds for greater or less distances. 

The trap exposure follows the shore line of the Hudson quite 
closely from the New Jersey state line to Haverstraw. Here the 
outcrop swings around to the west away from the river and after 
continuing in that direction for some 4 miles, thins out or dis- 
appears beneath the surface. In this part the sheet apparently cuts 
across the bedded rocks at nearly right angles to their strike. The 
exposure has been described and mapped very accurately by H. B. 

The diabase varies more or less in texture from place to place, 
but has a very uniform composition in which plagioclase, augite and 
magnetite are predominant and olivine, pyrite. cjuartz and other 
minerals are of minor importance. It is grayish to dark green in 
color, and shows very little alteration. The grain is moderately 
coarse, except near the upper and lower edges, where it is fine and 

For many years the diabase has been extensively cjuarried for 
crushed stone. It has also been worked to a limited extent for pav- 
ing blocks and for building material, but the difticulty of cutting it 
has prevented any marked development of these uses. As a road 
metal it has long been recognized as the standard of quality. The 
quarries around Haverstraw, Rockland lake and Xyack in recent 
years have had an output annually of over 1,000,000 cubic yards of 
crushed stone. 

1 X. Y. State Museum Annual Rep't 52. v. 2,. 1900.. 



Tests of the trap by the bureau of research, State Department of 
Highways, gave the following results on a number of samples : 

specific gravity 

Weight, pounds for each cubic 


Water absorbed, pounds for 

each cubic foot 

Per cent of wear 





























■ 23 




2 . 1 



















■ 70 



In the near future the quarrying of trap from the face of the Pali- 
sades will probably be discontinued, as the river front is to be incor- 
porated in the Palisades Interstate Park. 

The property of the Manhattan Trap Rock Co., on the southeast- 
erly face of Hiook mountain, has already been taken over for pur- 
poses of the park and the crushing plant dismantled. The other 
quarries in this section are owned by the Rockland Lake Trap Co., 
the Clinton Point Stone Co. and the Haverstraw Crushed Stone Co. 
They are still operative (1914) but it is understood that negotiations 
for their purchase have been begun. With their acquisition the in- 
dustry along the riverside, which is the most advantageously situ- 
ated for the econO'mic production and shipment oi crushed trap will 
come to a definite end. The supply then must co'me from some of 
the inland quarries or from the New Jersey and Connecticut trap 
areas, in either case probably at an increase in cost. 

The present quarries are well equipped and capable of turning out 
a large output at a low cost. The largest of them is owned by the 
Rockland Lake Trap Co., where there is a face of 2000 feet and 500 
feet or more high. The rock is broken down in enormous quantity 
by drilling and blasting, loaded onto cars by steam shovels and 
crushed in the plants at the riverside whence it is loaded into barges 
for transport to New York and the other markets on the river and 


Trap is exposed over a considerable area south of Ladentown and 
west of the branch railroad from Spring Valley to Haverstraw. 
The area is in line with the course of the Palisades intrusion from 
Haverstraw to Mount Ivy but is separated from the latter by a 
stretch of over a mile in which the rock does not appear at the 
surface. The trap also differs somewhat in appearance from the 
Palisades diabase. As mapped by Kummel, the area measures 


about 2 miles in maximum diameter from northeast to southwest 
and is about i mile wide. It is thus sufficiently large to permit the 
location of many quarries within its bounds, although as yet un- 
developed. The rock is very fine-grained and is somewhat vesicular 
in places ; it may be a surface development of the Palisades diabase. 


Union Hill, near Suffern, consists of a mass of trap from one- 
fourth to one-half of a mile in diameter. The rock is a fine-grained, 
compact diabase of the same composition as the Palisades rock. 
The Ramapo Trap Rock Co. has opened quarries in the exposure 
for the production of crushed stone. 


The southern end of the Palisades diabase is found on Staten 
Island where the intrusion forms a low ridge that extends south- 
southwest from Port Richmond. The exact limits of the area are 
not well marked, but it probably is from one-fourth to one-half of 
a mile wide and terminates somewhere near Linoleumville. Quar- 
ries have been opened at Graniteville and Port Richmond. For the 
last few years they have been inactive. 


Section 5 




The coarsely textured modifications of granite that are called 
pegmatites have a special interest that seems best to recognize here 
by their separate description. This interest is connected not only 
with their scientific features in regard to origin, methods of occur- 
rence and mineral contents, but also with their industrial uses which 
cover certain fields quite apart from those belonging to ordinary 
granites. Pegmatites are sources of feldspar, quartz and other min- 
erals of commercial importance. 

The most striking physical character of pegmatites — their 
coarseness of texture — is a relative one, but important in determin- 
ing their utility. Almost every variation may be found in the field 
between the coarser granites which are available for constructional 
or ornamental stone to the coarsest *' giant " granites or pegmatites 
in which the individual minerals attain dimensions of several feet 
and weights of a ton or more. It is evident that other things being 
equal, the larger the size of the icrystals, the more readily can their 
separation be carried out, and ease of separation is an important 
factor in the success of quarry operations for the production of 
feldspar and quartz. 

Pegmatite is commonly associated with granite in its field occur- 
rence. It is rare enough to find any large granite exposure without 
more or less of pegmatite either as included bodies or as distinct 
but apparently related intrusions in the surrounding country. The 
relation is so constant as to lead to the view already expressed 
earlier in this report that pegmatite is really bitt a modified form 
of granite, the textural differences being ascribable to variations in 
the process of crystallization. The presence in pegmatites of min- 
erals containing fluorine, chlorine, boron, water, and other ingre- 
dients that are regarded as powerful solvents or " mineralizers," is 
significant. It appears very probable from this and other consider- 
ations that the rock represents the residue of a granite magma that 
was still held liquid after the main body had reached its consoli- 
dation temperature. This residue would tend to gather in the lower 
part of the magma as a result of the forcing out of the solvents from 
the cooling and crystallizing zone above. With the solvent vapors, 



some of the silica, alkalies etc., would be retained in a condition 
facilitating their ready migration through any favorable channels 
that might be formed by the fracturing of the overlying rocks. The 
formation of pegmatite dikes is thus a normal after-effect of an 
igneous intrusion. As regards their mineral nature, there seems to 
be a gradation from a composition about that of granite to very 
quartzose phases and even to pure quartz. The occurrence of many 
quartz veins in the vicinity of granite intrusions may thus be ex- 

Forms of pegmatite bodies. Pegmatite intrusions commonly 
occur in tabular masses which are called dikes when they occupy 
vertical or highly inclined fissures, or sills if they follow channels 
in a nearly horizontal plane. Their direction is determined by lines 
of structural weakness in the country rock, such as faulting, joint- 
ing and in the case of sediments oftentimes by bedding, whichever 
structure may afford the easiest outlet toward the surface. Dikes 
and sills are sharply defined in contact with the country rocks. 
Though exceedingly numerous in the vicinity of granite masses, 
they only rarely attain a workable size. Their length naturally 
exceeds their thickness and it is rather seldom that the latter reaches 
more than a few feet. 

Of more importance for quarry purposes, at least in this State, are 
the bosses and stocks of pegmatite that are characterized by a 
rounded or lenticular form as seen on the surface. Like bosses of 
ordinary granite, they seem to have made their own outlet toward 
the surface rather than to have followed some preexisting struc- 
tural channel. They are more or less irregular in their boundaries, 
but in a general way approach an equidimensional form as seen in 
outcrop. They are well defined along the contact with the country 
rocks. They reach diameters of several hundred feet, as instanced 
by some of the occurrences in the eastern Adirondacks. They seem 
to be specially developed in the harder, more massive gneisses and 
in the granites themselves, whereas dikes occur both in these rocks 
and in the schists and sedimentary foundations, but are more 
characteristic perhaps of the latter. 

Besides intrusive pegmatites, there are bodies occurring in the 
older granites and gneisses which seem to have originated in place 
by some process of differential crystallization while the magma was 
cooling ; or in the case of gneisses they may have been found during 
a period of resoftening of the rock mass incident to metamorphism. 
They are of varied shape and size, often consisting of narrow bands 
that shade off on all sides to the parent rock or in large masses 


that are bordered at times by fine-grained aplitic granite. Peg- 
matites of this nature have no economic importance as sources of 
feldspar or quartz, as the minerals are not sufficiently large or 
segregated to admit their easy separation. 

The feldspar minerals. The general mineral composition of 
pegmatites has been given on pages 66 and 67 of this report. It 
should be noted, however, that feldspar, the principal economic 
product of the local pegmatites, is not a definite mineral species, 
but rather a mineral group, the members of which vary among 
themselves in chemical and physical properties^ as well as in their 
industrial uses. The requirements for pottery spar, for which a 
fairly large and steady market exists, are such as to exclude all but 
a few varieties, and similarly there are certain restrictions generally 
upon the kinds that find use in other industries. It is therefore 
highly essential to ascertain the nature of the feldspar in pegmatite 
and its adaptability for different purposes before undertaking the 
development of a deposit. 

The feldspar minerals are composed of silica and alumina with 
one or more of the bases — potash, soda and lime. It is usual to 
class them in two principal groups, the potash feldspars and the 
lime-soda feldspars, according to the nature of the bases present. 

The potash feldspars correspond chemically to the formula, 
KAlSisOg or KoO.ALOg. 6SiO, ; accordingly when pure they should 
contain silica 64.7 per cent, alumina 18.4 per cent and potash 16.8 
per cent. As a matter of fact, the potash seldom reaches the theo- 
retical proportion, being partially replaced by soda which enters 
into the chemical structure or is contained in another kind of feld- 
spar intergrown with the potash variety. The amount of soda 
present may range from i to 5 or 6 per cent. The potash feldspars 
include orthoclase and microcline, the former monoclinic and the 
latter triclinic in crystal form. Their distinction requires accurate 
measurements of the cleavage or interfacial angles, or a study of 
their optical properties under the miscroscope. Microcline is the 
more common variety in New York pegmatites. There is no 
difference in their value for pottery or other uses. 

The lime-soda group of feldspars, or the plagioclases, consists of 
a continuous series that ranges from the pure soda variety, or 
albite, at the one end to the lime feldspar, anorthite, at the other. 
The 'Composition of albite is represented by the formula NaAlSioOs 
or Na20.Al20o.6SiOo, corresponding to the following individual per- 
centages : silica 68.7; alumina 19.5; soda 11.8. Anorthite has the 
composition CaALSioOg or CaO.ALOg.sSiOg and contains in per- 



centages : silica 43.2; alumina 36.7; lime 20.1. The intermediate 
members are mixtures of the two in various proportions which can 
be expressed in general terms as Ab^An . They include oligoclase, 
andesine, labradorite and bytownite, named in order from the soda 
to the lime end of the series. The feldspars with high percentages 
of soda are called the acid series on account of their relatively 
large proportion of silica in contrast with those high in lime, which 
are relatively low in silica. The identification of the different 
members requires accurate crystal measurements (all belong to the 
triclinic system but differ individually in form), or optical study, 
or chemical analysis, and the methods need not be explained here. 
The plagioclases commonly exhibit a striated appearance on certain 
faces which arise from minute parallel lines that mark the contact 
of lamellae in reversed or twinned position. This characteristic is 
not common to the potash feldspars. 

The color of the feldspars exercises no influence upon their use, 
except as it may be due to the presence of iron stain or iron-bearing 
impurities. The potash feldspars commonly are light yellow, pink, 
red or gray in color. The color of plagioclase varies from pure 
white, most often seen in albite, to gray, brown or greenish, and 
less commonly reddish. The variations in natural color disappear 
when the feldspar is fused, the melt being usually white. 

The use of feldspar in pottery and generally for glazing purposes 
is conditioned by the chemical composition which determines the 
temperature of fusion. The potash varieties, orthoclase and micro- 
cline, and the soda variety, albite, have the lowest melting tempera- 
tures. According to the more recent work of Day and Alien,^ who 
carried out a very extensive series of experiments on the subject, 
these varieties do not melt at a definite point, but their fusion 
extends over a range of temperatures. In finely powdered micro- 
cline there was evidence of sintering at 1000° C, but the material 
was not actually fused until the temperature reached about 1300°. 
Albite fused at a somewhat lower point, but still above 1250° C. 
The lime-soda varieties melt at temperatures between 1340°, the 
fusing point of oligoclase, and 1532°, which is the melting point of 
anorthite. .^7^'^W' 

Besides their lower fusing point, the feldspars that contain high 
percentages of alkalies possess a further important feature, namely, 
that on melting they yield a translucent glass. The varieties high 

1 Carnegie Institute Publications No. 31, Washington, 1905, p. 13-75; also 
Amer. Jour. Sci. 4th ser. v. ig. 1905, p. 93-142. 


ill lime, on the other hand, possess a strong tendency to crystalHze 
and only consolidate in glassy form when quickly cooled. The 
crystallizing property becomes more marked with increase in the 
lime and is very strong in anorthite. This feature, of course, 
operates against the use of the more basic feldspars in pottery 

Uses of pegmatite. The products of the local pegmatite quarries 
include feldspar of different grades, quartz, mica and unsorted 
crushed pegmatite. 

The uses of feldspar are various. The principal demand for 
high-grade potash spar is in the pottery industry, parti'cularly in 
the manufacture of porcelain, semiporcelain and china tablewares, 
and porcelain sanitary wares and electrical supplies. The feldspar 
for such purposes should contain no more than a mere trace of 
iron, and very little muscovite or other mineral impurities except 
quartz, which is allowable up to a certain extent. In such wares 
it performs a double function, being employed to bind together 
the quartz and kaolin that constitute the body and also as a con- 
stituent of the glaze when this is required. The proportion of 
feldspar used in the body of vitrified wares ranges from 10 to 35 
per cent and in glazes from 30 to 50 per cent. Bastin states ^ that 
the requirements in regard to allowable percentages of free quartz 
differ among individual potteries ; a few manufacturers of high- 
grade wares demand a feldspar with less than 5 per cent of free 
quartz, but most potters perhaps use the " Standard " ground spar 
carrying 15 to 20 per cent of admixed quartz. 

Manufacturers of enamel ware, glazed brick and terra cotta con- 
sume consideralDle quantities of feldspar. In enamel ware, the re- 
quirements are perhaps not so strict in regard to iron as in pottery 
manufacture, but the spar must be fairly free of quartz, as the 
latter tends to raise the melting point. Among enamel ware and 
terra cotta manufacturers, a preference is shown for albite over the 
potash varieties owing to its lower fusing point. Little of this 
mineral is found in the New York pegmatites, but it occurs in 
quantity in eastern Pennsylvania and in Maryland. Another use 
for the local feldspar is in the manufacture of opalescent glass. 
This requires a material of about the same quality as that for 
enamel ware, but may contain more quartz. 

A large quantity of feldspar is employed as an abrasive, es- 
specially in the form of scouring soaps and powders. For that 

^Feldspar Deposits of the United States, U. S. Geol. Sur. Bui. 420, 1910, 
p. 19. 


purpose it is ground to an inipalpaljle powder. It also finds use 
in the manufacture of abrasive wheels as a binder for the emery 
or carborundum with which the spar is mixed. 

The quartz, which is an important ingredient of the local peg- 
matites, has value if obtainable in fairly pure condition. It is 
extensively produced at the Bedford cjuarries. The principal uses 
are in pottery and in the manufacture of abrasives and wood filler. 
The requirements for pottery are strict with regard to iron, but 
less so for other uses. The quartz from pegmatites may be re- 
garded as a by-product, not of sufficient importance to warrant 
quarry operations for itself alone. Larger amounts of quartz come 
from quartz veins. 

The unsorted pegmatite, when crushed, finds sale among makers 
of prepared roofing, in which it is employed as a surface coating 
with tar or some bituminous binder. The pegmatite is crushed to 
a pea size or a little coarser, the feldspar and mica yielding flat 
surfaces that are of advantage in securing firm adherence to the 
paper. The purity of the material is a subordinate factor and no 
effort is made usually to separate any of the ingredients. The fine 
material resulting from the crushing is sold for use in concrete and 
grout, and a small proportion in the coarser sizes finds a market 
as poultry grit. Crushed pegmatite has recently come into use in the 
preparation oi artificial stone which is made to imitate granite and is 
cast in almost any form so as to require little or no dressing. 

General considerations. The economic value of pegmatite oc- 
currences depends upon a number of features, some of which have 
been mentioned already. The character of the feldspar will deter- 
mine the adaptability of the product to different uses. In case the 
minerals are much intergrown, even if in fairly large individuals, 
the material can hardly be sold for the higher grades without so 
much expense in sorting and cobbing as to render the operations 
unprofitable. Such occurrences are adapted only for the production 
of unsorted pegmatite for roofing and concrete. To enable them 
to be worked profitably, they must be of large size and conveniently 
situated for shipment of the product to market. 

Under the varying conditions presented by the occurrence and 
mineral nature of pegmatites, there is little that can be stated gen- 
erally in regard to the value of undeveloped properties. As a rule, 
it may be said that a dike or lens less than 25 feet thick is not 
workable and one of that size can be worked profitably only under 
exceptional circumstances. Of course, much depends upon distance 
of haulage and the freight rates to market. 


There is considerable uncertainty as to the quantity of available 
material in pegmatites, even when they have been well exposed at 
the surface. Unlike normal granites, they are very liable to sudden 
variations in the proportions and relations of the quartz and feld- 
spar, such variations arising quite abruptly. This involves a con- 
siderable element of risk, particularly in the working of small 
bodies for some particular grade of feldspar. In the larger dikes 
and bosses, the desired quality may be obtained by carrying on 
work in several places and sorting the product carefully into grades. 
Thus at Bedford three grades of feldspar are produced from one 
body, besides a quartz by-product. With a small output, it is not 
practicable always to sort the product so carefully and there is 
consequently more waste. 



The pegmatites are limited in their occurrence to the two prin- 
cipal areas of early crystalline rocks represented by the- Adiron- 
dacks and the southeastern Highlands. They occur in the vicinity 
of the larger granite intrusions, but the workable bodies are more 
often found on the periphery of such intrusions and within the 
older country gneisses and schists than in the midst of the granites 
themselves. They appear sometimes in the areas where ordinary 
granites do not outcrop, but in this case they may be offshoots of 
some 'buried mass that were able to reach the surface on account of 
their fluid condition. 

The Adirondack region is well supplied with pegmatites, but they 
are by no means equally distributed. The great anorthosite mass 
that spreads over the eastern central part, mainly within Essex 
county, is naturally devoid of occurrences, as it is of later intru- 
sives generally, except those of basic character. In the fringe of 
gneisses to the east of that mass there are granite intrusions and 
pegmatites, some .of the latter of large size, as those near Crown 
Point and Ticonderoga. In the northern Adirondacks, which is 
largely occupied by a belt of very old gneisses, few intrusions of 
younger granite are encountered. So far, only one large pegmatite 
body has been reported in that section. The southern Adirondacks 
have a number of occurrences and it may be expected that others 
will be found here as the region is more carefully explored, but 
they are likely to be in the more inaccessible parts. The western 
Adirondacks, particularly the section included in St Lawrence, 
Jefiferson and northern Lewis counties, is known to include numer- 


oLis 'bathyliths and bosses of granite, covering a larger portion of 
the surface than in any other part ; the granites are mainly coarse 
varieties, rich in quartz and containing segregated masses of peg- 
matite. The conditions thus appear very favorable for the occur- 
rence of extensive bodies an that section, but the remote and 
inaccessible nature of much of the area has rather discouraged 

In the Highlands region and southward into Westchester county 
pegmatites are quite abundant but only rarely reach workable pro- 
portions. They occur mainly in the Precambric gneisses, but may 
be of much later age than the latter as the granite invasions con- 
tinued down into Siluric time. The principal bodies that have been 
worked are near Bedford, Westchester county. In the central 
Jlighlands there is much pegmatite and coarse granite in evidence, 
usually pinkish or grayish in color, but there are no developed 
quarries. The pegmatites occur in considerable bodies in the 
vicinity of some of the magnetite deposits. 

The present description of the pegmatite localities includes men- 
tion of all of present or prospective importance that have come to 
the writer's attention during rather extended travels in the field. 
A few have been mentioned in previous reports of the State Mu- 
seum, and many of the better known occurrences are given detailed 
treatment in Bastin's monographic bulletin, " Economic Geology of 
the Feldspar Deposits of the United States," already cited. 


Quarry of the Crown Point Spar Company 

The pegmatite quarry worked by the Crown Point Spar Com- 
pany is on Breed's hill, south of Crown Point, about 1^4 miles west 
from Lake Champlain. The pegmatite outcrops on one of the 
summit knobs, 500 feet or more above the lake level. It was dis- 
covered some years ago by Charles Wait of Crown Point, the 
present manager in charge of the quarry. It is apparently a large, 
somewhat irregular lens or stock, with a longer diameter running 
northeast-southwest parallel to the general tend of the surrounding 
gneisses. The full size is not revealed, but it measures several hun- 
dred feet at least in that direction. Toward the border it becomes 
finer grained. The country gneiss is a dark, banded variety, much of 
it an amphibolite, and is intruded by aplite and pegmatite. Small 
masses of the latter may be observed, which approximate the shape 
of the larger body ; they are irregularly bounded and contain patches 
of the country gneiss that have been torn away from the walls. 



The pegmatite consists of two varieties of feldspar, one a light 
pink and the other greenish ; also quartz and biotite, with occasional 
small crystals of titanite, magnetite, zircon, tourmaline, pyrite and 

Fig. 13 Intrusion of pegmatite in gneiss, near quarry of Crown Point Spar 
Co., sliowing the bosslike shape of the pegmatite masses in this section 

chalcopyrite. Bastin reports also the presence of allanite. Chlorite 
occurs as a secondary development along planes of slipping incident 
to compression. The quartz and feldspar are rather intimately 
intermixed, but single individuals of either occur up to 6 or 8 
inches in diameter. An examination of the feldspars under the 
microscope show that the pink variety is microcline and the greenish 
a plagioclase in optical properties close to oligoclase. Most of the 
iron is present in biotite which is rather abundant though unequally 

The principal product of the c[uarry is roofing material but other 
grades are sold for concrete, poultry grit and enamel wares. The 
spar for the latter purpos^e is obtained from sorted material that is 
free of iron minerals, with microcline as the main ingredient. The 
biotite is screened out and finds application in paint. 

The pegmatite as quarried is conveyed by an overhead tram to 
the mill which is situated at the base of the hill close to the lake and 
railroad. It is there passed through a preliminary crusher of the 
Blake type, then dried and further reduced by rolls and sized on 
screens. The pottery grade after crushing and drying goes to a 
chaser for final reduction. The crushed pegmatite is graded into 
six sizes of which the coarsest (no. 2) will pass a 2^ mesh screen 


and is caught on a 3^ mesh screen, and the finest (no. 6), which 
is hke very fine sand. 

Roe's quarry 

Roe's quarry, locally known as Roe's spar-bed, is about 8 miles 
northwest of Crown Point in the vicinity of Towner pond, near the 
Moriah town line. The locality more precisely is three-fourths of a 
mile directly south of Towner pond and one-fourth of a mile east 
of the highway leading past the pond. It is in a very rugged section, 
quite close to the main anorthosite intrusion, lying well up on a 
ridge at an elevation of between iioo and 1200 feet, according to 
the contour map. 

The property was last worked fifteen years or more ago as a 
source of pottery spar. The output, which must have been con- 
siderable in view of the size of the. quarry working, was hauled to 
Crown Point for shipment at a cost of from $1.25 to $1.50 a ton. 
The property now belongs to H. W. Willcox of Crown Point. 

The opening in its present condition is 75 feet wide running 
northeasterly into the ridge and has a face 50 feet high. Apparently 
the body has the shape of an elongated lens, from 75 to 100 feet 
wide and of uncertain length. The bounds are not clearly revealed 
by outcrops and there is some doubt as to the extent of the peg- 
matite outside of the part worked. The longer axis appears to run 
about N. 50° E. as indicated by a series of test pits below the main 
opening. Above or northeast of the quarry the country rock, a 
grayish hornblende gneiss, outcrops within a short distance of the 
line of strike, so that apparently there is not much more to be 
quarried in that direction. A large supply exists, however, in the 
floor of the quarry which could be conveniently worked, and prob- 
ably also good material would be found to the southwest. The 
existence of feldspar on the adjoining property to the south of the 
Roe quarry was reported to the writer, but the locality was not 

The feldspar occurs in very large crystals and aggregates, well 
segregated. Individuals with a cross-section of 3 feet are not un- 
common. Some show fine crystal boundaries as they project from 
the walls of the quarry. There are two varieties of feldspar present, 
pink and grayish white, the former showing the properties of micro- 
cline and the latter of oligoclase. They appear to be in about equal 
amounts. Quartz occurs in subordinate quantity and is unequally 
distributed, being practically absent over considerable areas. It is 
pink or milky in color. Graphic intergrowths with feldspar are in 


evidence, but the proportion is small. Of iron-bearing silicates, 
biotite and black tourmaline are fairly common, but for the most 
part are segregated in bunches, so that their presence would not 
entail any great waste in sorting for pottery materials. Altogether 
the pegmatite is exceptionally adapted for the production of feld- 

The face of the quarry is cut by four trap dikes, from i inch 
to 2 feet thick, which are quite closely spaced and probably coalesce 

The main difificulty in the way of successful operation of the 
quarry seems to be its remoteness. The nearest outlet to the rail- 
road is by way of Crown Point over a rather rough country, but 
with the grade favoring the load. 

Penfield Pond occurrence 

A body of pegmatite of large size occurs on the road leading west 
from near the south end of Penfield pond. It was noted by the 
writer several years ago, but was not examined with regard to the 
quality of the materials. 

In the report by Dr Ida H. Ogilvie on the Paradox Lake quad- 
rangle,^ it is stated that pegmatites are abundant in the vicinity of 
Crane pond. 


Quarry of Barrett Manufacturing Company 

The Barrett Manufacturing Company has operated a quarry near 
Ticonderoga for several years past, using the crushed pegmatite in 
the preparation of sheet roofing. The quarry is situated about 2 
miles northwest of the village of Ticorrderoga at the eastern base 
of the ridge of Precambric rocks. The occurrence is very similar 
to that described near Crown Point, consisting of a large lens of 
pegmatite included within gneisses of the Grenville series with the 
larger axis parallel to the strike of the latter, which is about N.55°E. 

The pegmatite is made up of quartz and feldspar which are not 
very well segregated and do not attain large size, the individual 
crystals being seldom more than 4 or 5 inches across. The feldspar 
consists of two varieties, the more abundant being a white or 
grayish microcline. The second variety is a light green oligoclase. 
Intergrowth of the quartz and feldspar is the usual condition. The 

1 N. Y. State Museum Bui. 96, 1905, p. 


principal iron mineral is biotite, which forms rather large crystals 
but is very unequally distributed. There is some secondary chlorite. 
Black tourmaline, garnet and iron sulphides occur sparingly. The 
character of the pegmatite thus agrees very closely with the Crown 
Point occurrence and is no doubt connected with the same series of 
granite intrusions. 

The product of the quarry is reduced in a mill neai-by, equipped 
with jaw crusher and rolls and screens for sizing. The material 
too fine for roofing is sold for concrete and grout. No pottery 
grades are obtained. The output is hauled by wagons to Ticon- 
deroga for shipment. 

Mount Defiance quarry 

An abandoned quarry is found on the north end of Mount De- 
fiance between Montcalm Landing and Ticonderoga. It was worked 
several years ago by the Ticonderoga Feldspar Co. The rock 
strictly is not a granite pegmatite, but a coarse phase of the country 
gneiss which belongs to the syenitic class. It contains hornblende 
and pyroxene with some quartz and a perthitic feldspar. 


Ashley quarry 

An exposure of pegmatite near Fort Ann has been worked at 
different times for feldspar and quartz. It is one of the localities 
from which quartz was obtained for grinding at the mill that was 
operated at Fort Ann about twenty-five or thirty years ago. More 
recently it has been a source of feldspar and has been worked inter- 
mittently according to the prevailing market demand, the last time 
by Dominick Ashley of Glens Falls. 

The outcrop lies about 2^ miles northwest from Fort Ann at 
the base of the gneiss ridge, of which the higher part is known as 
Putnam mountain. It is on or adjoins the farm of Ira D. Gilmore. 
It consists of a rather irregular area, suggesting somewhat a lens, 
with a longer axis nearly at right angles to the trend of the ridge 
or to the northwest. An open pit about 125 feet long and from 
30 to 40 feet deep has been made but is now largely filled with 
water. The lens is broadest near the southeastern end where it 
measures fully 75 feet across. To the northeast it gradually dimin- 
ishes and wedges out in the gneiss 50 feet beyond the end of the 
pit. The gneiss wall rock is a laminated biotite variety that may 
be classed with the Grenville series. 


The pegmatite contains much graphic intergrowth of feldspar 
and quartz, although the two minerals also occur separately to 
a considerable extent. 

The quartz masses reach a diameter of 2 or 3 feet and the feld- 
spar a similar size. Most of the feldspar has a grayish color and 
belongs to the microcline variety. There is also a little pinkish 
feldspar which may be orthoclase. Tourmaline and the iron-bearing 
silicates generally have a very limited representation, though the 
material is much stained by iron oxides, the result probably of 
oxidation of sulphides. 

The pegmatite shows alteration in places, with the formation of 
kaolin and sericite, and takes on a greenish coloration which seems 
to be traceable to secondary serpentine. The presence of this 
mineral is not connected apparently with any magnesium compound 
of the pegmatite, but is referable to the alteration of the feldspar 
and to the introduction of magnesium compounds from outside 
sources. Apparently the pegmatite has been a channel for ground 
water circulations. 


Wilson Brown quarry 

The name of this quarry is given on the authority of residents of 
Chestertown, who stated to the writer that the property was last 
worked about fifteen years ago. The purpose of the operations 
originally was the production of mica. The locality is 3 miles south 
of Chestertown on the north side of a high ridge i^^ miles east of 
the Warrensburg road. Two workings may be seen, the principal 
one being to the south and higher up on the ridge. This consists 
of an open cut about 50 feet long and 15' feet wide on a dike or 
elongated lens of pegmatite that strikes northeast. The limits of the 
body are uncertain, except on the east side of the pit where the 
country rock appears within a few feet of the wall. The more 
northerly pit is probably a separate body, unless the pegmatite has 
a much larger extent than seems to be indicated. It is a narrow 
opening of undetermined depth. 


Gordon quarry 

In 1906 the Claspka Mining Company of Trenton, N. J., opened 
a quarry in the town of Edinburg, Saratoga county, which the com- 
pany worked for two or three years for pottery spar. The locality 


of the quarry is 2 miles north of Batchellerville, on the road to 
Day, on the farm of Adelbert Gordon. The nearest railroad point 
is Northville, the northern terminus of a branch that connects at 
Fonda with the New York Central lines, necessitating a wagon 
haulage of 8 or 9 miles over a somewhat rough country. 

There are two openings on the property, situated about one-fourth 
of a mile east of the highway at the base of the ridge which forms 
the steep eastern slope of the Sacandaga river valley. The lower 
or westerly pit has been worked to a depth of about 50 feet. Its 
horizontal dimensions are about 75 feet by 50 feet, indicating the 
usual stock form in which most of the larger bodies of pegmatite 
occur, but the whole area of the pegmatite is not shown. The 
minerals are in coarse crystals and fairly well segregated, though 
there is considerable graphic intergrowth of quartz and feldspar. 
The former is found also in pure masses of white and pink color 
up to a foot in diameter. The feldspar is mostly grayish micro- 
cline, but is intergrown to some extent with a white variety which 
microscopically corresponds to albite. The largest individuals ob- 
served were fully 3 feet in length. Much waste in quarrying was 
incurred from the presence of abundant mica and owing to the 
existence of an included lens of the wall rock. A large quantity of 
quartz, mica and mixed material was left at the quarry after the 
feldspar had been sorted for shipment. 

A feature of this quarry is the fine crystals of muscovite and 
beryl which occasionally attain very unusual dimensions. The mus- 
covite forms books and columnar crystals that measure a foot or 
more in diameter and from an inch or so to 10 inches thick. The 
mica, however, is not generally suitable for cutting as it shows 
rulings and contains inclusions of iron oxides. The beryls are the 
largest that have been found in the State; one crystal, now in the 
State Museum, has a length of 27 inches and a diameter of 10 
inches. The larger ones are opaque and greenish in color, but some 
small crystals have been found that were fairly clear aquamarines. 
They show the hexagonal prism faces but are not terminated. 

A second pit lies to the east of the one described and is of smaller 
size. The pegmatite has the same general character as noted but 
shows some garnet. 

There appears to be a good body of pegmatite at this place, 
though the contact against the country gneisses is not so well dis- 
closed as to permit an estimate of the exact size. The gneiss is a 
biotite variety with augen of feldspar and shows a foliation that 
strikes about N. 50° E. and dips 30° southeast. Apparently the 


pegmatite does not conform to the structure of the gneiss, but 
breaks across the foHation, which it would naturally do if it were 
in the nature of a stock rather than a dike. 

The occurrence still possesses value for the production of pottery 
spar. The main drawback at present is the expense of haulage. 


Quarry of American Feldspar & Milling Co. 

This quarry is a practically undeveloped property from which 
only trial shipments have thus far been made. The Corinth Feld- 
spar Co. did some work on it in 1908, but relinquished control to 
the company named, who are its present owners. The property is 
about 3 miles southwest from the Corinth railroad station and 700 
feet above it. 

The pegmatite has a width of about 60 feet and is exposed over 
a vertical distance of 130 feet. It has not been sufficiently developed 
to indicate the shape of the body, but it is perhaps an elongated 
lens or dike intruded parallel to the foliation of the surrounding 
gneiss which trends a little west of north. There is more or less 
of the rock in evidence over a distance of 2000 feet. The peg- 
matite consists mainly of an intergrowth of quartz and feldspar, 
with only a small part of either mineral in free crystals serviceable 
for pottery uses. The feldspar is an untwinned variety that appears 
to be orthoclase, a rather rare form for Adirondack pegmatites. 
There is considerable biotite which is so equally distributed as 
to render its separation a matter of difficulty. 


Tyrell quarry 

This occurrence of pegmatite was worked a few years since by 
the Claspka Mining Co. along with the quarry near Batchellerville. 
It is situated in the town of Mayfield, 3 miles west of Cranberry 
creek, on the farm of Richard Tyrell. The outcrop lies well up 
on the gneiss ridge, 800 or 900 feet above the railroad which 
terminates at Northville, 5 miles above Cranberry creek. 

The main body of pegmatite is opened by a pit 50 or 60 feet 
across and heading into a ridge in a northeasterly direction. The 
quarry face as left by the former operations is over 50 feet high. 
The materials are coarsely crystallized, the quartz and feldspar 
reaching a maximum diameter of 3 or 4 feet. The feldspar in- 
cludes pinkish microcline and a white striated albite. The latter is 



usually predominant, while the microcline is so much intergrown 
with biotite as to cause much loss in sorting. There is also a little 
of greenish gray oligoclase. On the east side of the quarry a trap 
dike intervenes between the pegmatite and the country gneiss. 
Biotite and tourmaline are the iron-bearing impurities. The latter 
is in small amount, associated more especially with the quartz. The 
biotite is rather abundant and in large crystals. 

It would appear that the spar from this quarry might prove ver}^ 
serviceable for enamel ware and for glazing brick and terra cotta, 
for which purposes albite is considered preferable to the potash 
varieties on account of its lower fusing point. 

There are several places in the vicinity of the quarry where 
pegmatite outcrops. One showing is just northeast, a ledge 30 or 
40 feet long, with reddish feldspar and some biotite. An 8-foot dike 
occurs just west of Mr Tyrell's house and contains reddish feldspar 
and pink quartz, with little mica or other dark silicates. The local- 
ity may be considered one of the more promising places for ex- 
ploration for feldspar in this section. 


Rowland property 

The existence of a ledge of coarse pegmatite in the town of 
Bigelow, St Lawrence county, was brought to the writer's attention 
some lime ago by J. H. McLear of Gouverneur. The occurrence 
is 3 miles northeast of Bigelow, between that place and East De 
Kalb. It is exposed in natural outcrops rising in low ridges above 
the general surface. One of the ridges is on the Rowland farm 
and another occurs on an adjoining property. They are conspicu- 
ous objects on account of the white color which is contributed 
both by the feldspar and the quartz. 

The principal ledge is about 75 feet long and 40 teet wide, but 
these measurements are based on the actual exposure and the 
body is undoubtedly considerably larger, as there is no evidence of 
any walls where the pegmatite disappears below the surface. A 
second ledge is found 300 feet southwest of the first, practically in 
the direction of the longer axis of the first; and the pegmatite is 
said to be exposed in other places which, however, were not seen 
by the writer. There is little doubt that the occurrence represents 
a large mass of the pegmatite, but whether in a single body or in 
two or more bodies is not apparent. 


The exposures reveal fresh, unaUered rock from the very surface. 
There is no iron stain and practically no iron silicates are in evi- 
dence, though an occasional grain of pyrite occurs in the quartz. 
The latter is milky white and forms unmixed masses, but mainly 
occurs intergrown with the feldspar. There is only one kind of 
this mineral, so far as could be established from a hasty examina- 
tion ; the feldspar is white perthitic microcline that might readily be 
mistaken for albite except for the lack of striations. The micro- 
cline on close examination shows a very fine intergrowth with an- 
other feldspar, also white, that has the optical properties of albite. 
There is perhaps one-fourth as much albite as microcline. The in- 
cluded bands of albite are approximately normal to both cleavages. 
The feldspar occurs in crystals from 6 inches to 3 feet long. It is 
probable that a fair proportion of first-grade pottery spar 
could be secured, but the larger quantity would have to be graded, 
however, on account of the quartz. This opinion is based, of 
course, solely upon the surface showing and there is need of care- 
ful prospecting before any attempt is made to extract material for 

The ledges are only slightly above the ground level and a quarry 
would soon develop into a subsurface working that would require 
draining. The conditions otherwise seem favorable for economical 
work. The railroad passes within one-fourth of a mile of the 


Denesia property 

A dike of pegmatite with well-crystallized feldspar occurs on 
the farm of C. W. Denesia about 2 miles south of Fullerville, in 
the town of Fowler. There is a single exposure which seems to be 
,of a dike, but it is too limited in area to permit much certainty 
regarding the nature and size of the body. The outcrop is only 
8 feet wide. With the very small area of rock exposed there is 
a probability that the occurrence may be of greater importance than 
is at present indicated. The feldspar occurs in splendidly developed 
crystals from 2 to 3 feet long, inclosed in a gronndinass of inter- 
grown quartz and feldspar with which tourmaline and biotite are 
associated. It consists of a deep red microcline and also of a lighter 
pinkish variety that is an intergrowth of microcline and albite. 



Scott property 

There are several occurrences of pegmatite on the Fred Scott 
farm, 4 miles north of OswegatJiie, in the town of Fine, St 
Lawrence county. They are of interest for the associated min- 
erals as well as for possible supply of quartz and feldspar. The 
feldspars occur in pink, white and greenish colors, evidently in- 
cluding both potash and lime-soda varieties. They are seldom found 
in segregated masses or crystals, but are mostly intergrown with 
quartz and some of the other minerals. Among the mineral species 
represented are fluorite, hornblende, pyroxene, pyrite, chalcopyrite 
and titanite, some being well crystallized. The association suggests 
a granite contact with limestone, and in fact the latter rock is found 
in scattered patches in the vicinity. 


Quarry of P. H. Kinkel & Sons 

The body of pegmatite situated in the hill southeast of Bedford 
village has for a number of years furnished a very large part of 
the feldspar and quartz production of the State. Besides the four 
openings included in the Kinkel quarry, the Bedford Feldspar Co. 
has recently developed a new quarry on the same body. The occur- 
rence is notable not only for its size, but for its good examples of 
crystallized and rare minerals and for the varied conditions pre- 
sented by the mineral association in different parts of the exposure. 

The several openings in the Kinkel cjuarry lie along the eastern 
and northern sides of the hill, the original pit being on the east 
side near the present mill. At this point the pegmatite shows more 
or less disintegration from surface weathering, so that operations 
have not been as actively carried on here as in the other pits higher 
up on the hill slope. These include two very large pits of which 
the more southerly one is about 300 feet long, 150 feet wide and 
has a face up to 50 feet high. The central one is not quite so long 
and the more northerly one is about 100 feet long, 50 feet wide and 
35 feet in greatest depth. Between the different pits and even in 
parts of the same working a marked variation may be observed 
in the arrangement and character of the pegmatite minerals. 
Though feldspar is the main component throughout most of the 


exposure, it gives way in places to a nearly pure quartz aggregate. 
Quartz is particularly abundant in the central part of the southern 
pit where it occurs in a large zone which here and there incloses 
a crystal or mass of pink feldspar. On either side of the quartz 
zone for some distance occurs a mixed phase of quartz and albite 
in pegmatitic intergrowth, with occasional segregated individuals 
or masses of the pink feldspar, which is microcline. The pink 
feldspar occurs by itself also in considerable bodies. The white 
albite is mainly developed as a graphic intergrowth with the quartz. 
Between the different phases exhibited by the feldspar, quartz and 
intergrowths of the two, it is possible to have every gradation. The 
conditions seem to indicate more or less segregation of the constitu- 
ents during the process of intrusion, facilitated no doubt by the 
extreme mobility of the magma. Lack of uniformity is rather 
characteristic of the larger pegmatitic bodies; and similar features 
may be seen in other occurrences though they are not so well shown 
as in these quarries. 

The feldspar from the different workings is graded according to 
character and content of quartz. The microcline, which occurs 
mainly in quite pure crystals and aggregates, constitutes the first 
grade, suitable for pottery purposes. The albite that is fairly free 
of quartz, but not entirely so, is sold as enamel material. The 
pegmatitic intergrowth of albite and quartz, with more or less of 
the pink variety as well, is used in glass manufacture, scouring 
soaps, etc. The first grade has generally been sold in crude con- 
dition, as the mill until recently was not equipped for grinding 
pottery material. The others were ground at the quarries. Besides 
the feldspar, there are obtained large quantities of quartz, which 
is shipped crude to the Bridgeport Wood Finishing Co. for wood 
filler and silica paint material. 

The more common associated minerals included mica, tour- 
maline, and beryl ; occasional ingredients are garnet, ilmenite and 
some of the uranium minerals. The mica is principally muscovite 
and occurs as included crystals in the feldspar or in the finer peg- 
matitic intergrowths along with the feldspars and quartz. The 
crystals seldom exceed 5 or 6 inches in diameter. They are much 
fractured and scarcely suitable for cutting of sheet mica. The 
biotite is in larger crystals but not so plentiful as to give much 
trouble in its removal. The tourmaline is the common black 
variety; it is mostly associated with the quartz as well-shaped pris- 
matic crystals and as a thin crystalline coating on the surfaces. 
The beryl forms flat and prismatic crystals, occasionally well- 








bounded, reaching diameters of 6 or 8 inches. It is usually opaque, 
yellowish green in color. The rare compounds, autunite, cyrtolite 
and uraconite all of which contain uranium are listed by Luquer ^ 
as occurring at Bedford. The first-named occurs rather frequently 
^s a bright greenish-yellow deposit on the feldspar and mica. 
The writer has recently observed the presence of columbite in 
crystalline masses of considerable size. 

In connection with the quarry, P. H. Kinkel & Sons operate a 
mill for grinding the spar. The equipment consists of a breaker, 
chasers and screens with a pebble mill for the fine grinding of 
pottery spar. This is a recent addition, as formerly only the second 
and third grades were ground, for which purpose the final reduction 
was accomplished in a ball mill. 

The output of the quarries is shipped from Bedford station on 
the Harlem branch of the New York Central, necessitating a 
haulage of 5 miles. 

Quarry of Bedford Feldspar Co. 

This new opening lies at the base of the hill and a few hundred 
feet north of the Kinkel quarry. The continuation of the pegmatite 
in that direction was concealed by a cover of soil and earth and 
was first explored by test holes before development work was 

The existence of the pegmatite rather indicates that the mass is 
not a dike in the usual sense of the word, but another of the 
rounded bodies or stocks that constitute the usual mode of occur- 
rence of the larger masses. If a dike, it does not conform in direc- 
tion with the general structure of the gneisses, but has a northerly 
strike. The great width of the body exposed in the Kinkel quarry 
is exceptional for a dike. It is possible that the present quarry 
is on a separate intrusion, but this scarcely seems likely in view 
of the character of the material. 

The working is all below the ground level and when seen in the 
spring of 1913 was about 30 feet deep with a diameter of 75 feet. 
The pegmatite is the same coarse aggregate as found farther south 
but carries a larger proportion of feldspar than the average in the 
Kinkel quarry. The material is somewhat stained and decomposed, 
but fresher material should be found in depth. 

1 " The Minerals of the Pegmatite Veins at Bedford, N. Y." The .A.merican 
Geologist, V. 18, 1896, p. 259-60. Also American Geologist, v. 38. 1904. 


The company has erected a mill on the property in which it 
grinds all the spar, shipping the ground material to tile, enamel 
ware and glass manufacturers. The capacity is 35 or 40 tons a 
day. The equipment for final grinding consists of ball mills. 
Auto trucks are used to transport the material to Bedford station, 
the shipments being made in bags. 

Bullock quarry 

The firm of P. H. Kinkel & Sons opened a new quarry in 1912 
on the Bullock property about 2 miles south of their main quarries. 
The property is west of the Hobby quarry. The occurrence is 
very similar to the latter in -the quality of the product but is not 
apparently connected with it. It consists of a dike 30 feet wide 
which strikes northeast and dips 80° to the northwest. The wall 
rock exposed on both sides is a mica schist, garnetiferous near the 
contact with the pegmatite, and resembling the Manhattan schist 
in its general appearance. 

The pegmatite shows a high degree of mineral segregation with 
very little of pegmatitic intergrowth. It is mostly feldspar of a 
cream or bufif color, which on examination is seen to be an inter- 
growth of microcline and albite with the former predominant in 
the proportion of 2 or 3 to I. It occasionally shows good crystal 
boundaries. The individuals measure as large as 2 feet or so in 
length, but are mostly smaller. The quartz has a smoky color and 
near the contact shows crystals of garnet. Tourmaline and yel- 
lowish mica are in subordinate quantity. The feldspar is readily 
separated with little waste, so as to be shipped as no. i grade. 

The opening is on the side of a hill and presents a face about 
30 feet high. It can be deepened considerably before it is neces- 
sary to provide artificial drainage. The product has been shipped 
crude for abrasive uses, but is an excellent material for pottery 
or glazing. It is noteworthy that the same varieties of feldspar 
are represented as in the Bedford quarries, but occur in pegmatite 
intergrowths and not segregated. 

Hobby quarry 

The Hobby quarry lies a little east of the Bullock beside the 
Mianus river. It was worked for a time by Otto Buresch and later 
by P. H. Kinkel & Sons, but for the last few years has been idle. 
It appears to be based on a large body, though the contacts with 
the country rocks are not shown. The working is perhaps 150 feet 
long by 100 feet wide. 






The pegmatite has the same character as that described for the 
Bullock property, but is somewhat coarser. Aggregates of feldspar 
10 feet in diameter are found, as well as equally large masses of 
white and rose quartz. The conditions are thus excellent for the 
production of high-grade materials. The feldspar is cream colored 
and is made up of microcline with small albite bands. There is 
a small quantity of muscovite in scales and plates associated with 
it. Black tourmaline also occurs in limited amount. The property 
undoubtedly will be worked when the market affords sufficient in- 
ducement. The long haulage of 7 or 8 miles is the main drawback 
to operations at present. 


Section 6 


Marble, like granite, is a term used by quarrymen for a variety 
of rock materials. Any limestone that takes a polish or possesses 
ornamental qualities is a marble in the trade sense, and some of 
the softer silicate rocks are likewise thus designated, notably those 
having a serpentine base. More properly the name belongs to the 
crystalline or metamorphic class of limestones as distinguished 
from the compact to finely granular kinds occurring in the regularly 
bedded formations. 

The quality of crystallinity is not always lacking in ordinary 
limestones, for some show aggregates of plainly visible calcite grains 
with the characteristic calcite cleavage surfaces ; for example, the 
Chazy limestones of the Champlain valley. But their texture is 
never so completely crystalline as in the types that have undergone 
a metamorphic rearrangement of their constituents while subjected 
to compression in the depths of the earth. Such partially crystalline 
limestones often polish well, but lack the glint and translucency 
of true marbles. In this case, the presence of coarse crystalline cal- 
cite probably results from the working over of the finely divided 
particles by ground waters. 

The microscopic appearance of a true marble is quite distinct 
from that of any carbonate rock which has not undergone pressure 
metamorphism. In the first place, the particles of calcite (or 
dolomite) are more uniform as to size and shape, whereas the 
texture of nonmetamorphic limestones is apt to be very variable and 
the size of grain shows a wide range. When crystallization takes 
place under conditions of cubic compression which characterizes 
the metamorphic process at considerable depths, the individual par- 
ticles have not opportunity to develop the characteristic outward 
forms that calcite ordinarily assumes, but must accommodate them- 
selves to the narrow space restrictions resulting from the simul- 
taneous crystallization of the whole mass. As a consequence, they 
exhibit a more or less even, granular habit with curved or irregular 
boundaries which are closely matched together. A second charac- 
teristic of the metamorphic liinestones as seen in thin section is the 
striations, broader than the lines of cleavage, that cut across the 
grains. These mark the junctions of crystals in so-called twinned 


positions ; they are not found in calcite particles of ordinary bedded 

In the metamorphic change from limestone to marble, the bedded 
structure as shown by the separation into parallel layers is usually 
obliterated. Marble normally has a massive appearance and is so 
coarsely jointed that blocks of almost any size may be quarried. 
It also lacks any definite cleavage, a feature that is of great ad- 
vantage in the working of the stone. 

Serpentine marbles include several types. Serpentine is a hy- 
drated silicate of magnesia and iron, which has the same hard- 
ness as calcite. The associations of the two minerals, therefore, 
does not afifect the capacity of a marble to take a polish. Verde 
antique is a serpentine irregularly veined with calcite. Another 
type consists of crystalline limestone in which occur scattered grains 
of serpentine of the size of peas, giving a white base speckled 
with green. Serpentine also occurs unmixed with carbonates and 
then exhibits oftentimes an attractive appearance by reason of 
variations in color which ranges from light translucent green to 
dark green and even black. Its origin is traceable usually to the 
decomposition of such minerals as pyroxene, amphibole and olivine. 
The larger bodies of serpentine are formed by the weathering of 
igneous rocks in which those minerals predominate. 


Marbles may have either calcite (CaCOg) or dolomite 
(CaMgCoOg) as the principal ingredient, or they may contain a 
mixture of the two in any proportions. A pure calcite marble 
would have the same composition naturally as the mineral itself, 
which consists of lime (CaO) 56 per cent and carbon dioxide 
(CO2) 44 per cent. Theoretically, a dolomite marble should con- 
tain lime (CaO) 30.4 per cent, magnesia (MgO) 21.7 per cent and 
carbon dioxide (CO.,) 47.8 per cent. These percentages, however, 
are never found in commercial marbles, owing to the invariable 
presence of other ingredients. The highest grades of white statu- 
ary marble, as represented by the best Italian and Greek examples, 
carry, however, over 99 per cent calcium carbonate, and there are 
American marbles nearly, if not quite, as pure. 

Between calcite limestones and the dolomites, every degree of 
gradation is to be found, since the two minerals intergrow with each 
other in any ratio ; such mixed phases are commonly designated 
as magnesian marbles or limestones, as the case may be. There is 


no discernible difference in the outward appearance of a calcite 
limestone and a dolomite, and their distinction requires the use of 
chemical or microscopic methods. The slight difference in hard- 
ness is not a reliable criterion. The two minerals have similar 
crystal properties, including perfect cleavage which yields surfaces 
of rhombic outline. It is this cleavage that produces the bright 
reflections of light and gives life to the crystalline marbles. 

The impurities in marbles take the form usually of scattered 
grains or crystals of the same order of magnitude as the calcite 
particles. In bedded limestones, on the other hand, they are dis- 
tributed more or less evenly through the mass and consist of finely 
divided clayey and siliceous materials — the mechanical sediment 
formed during the deposition of the dissolved carbonates. The 
clay and silica form new combinations in the process of meta- 
morphism, the carbonates supplying the lime and magnesia that 
may be required for the secondary minerals. Among the common 
foreign ingredients are muscovite, diopside and tremolite, but a 
great number of other silicates may occur. Any fine carbon is 
converted into scaly graphite. Some of the silica may' remain as 
quartz. The iron minerals include hematite, magnetite and pyrite. 
The last-named is most harmful if present in any amount, since 
it decomposes readily in the atmosphere, producing a rusty stain 
which will spread over large areas. 


The texture of marbles varies greatly between examples from 
different localities. Some characteristic textures of New York 
marbles are illustrated in figures 15 and 17. The grain may be 
medium or fine, or may be uneven through the occurrence of differ- 
ent sizes of particles. The shape and arrangement of the particles 
also are quite variable and upon these features depend to a great 
extent the strength and weathering qualities of the stone. The 
Gouverneur monumental marble, composed predominately of calcite, 
has a very compact texture, with grains of uneven size and of 
angular to subrounded form. The particles frequently show dentate 
outlines by which they are firmly interlocked; the general appear- 
ance in fact is suggestive of the welded and dovetailed arrange- 
ment exhibited by some granites. The dolomite ma'rbles of south- 
eastern New York range from exceedingly coarse to very fine- 
grained varieties, but usually the grain in any one sample is fairly 
even. Some have a compact and firmly knit texture and then are 


strong durable stones; others are made up of rounded, smooth 
particles which simply adhere without interlockment. The latter 
kind are less durable. 


Marbles are much more subject to solvent action when exposed 
to the weather than the silicate rocks, and the effects of solution 
upon most marbles exceed those of mechanical agencies in pro- 
moting decay. Pure water, however, has little solvent power upon 
either calcite or dolomite; the action of atmospheric moisture de- 
pends upon the small amounts of acid constituents which are ab- 
sorbed from the air. All rain water contains carbonic acid, and in 
cities where the consumption of soft coal is large it carries also 
more or less sulphuric acid formed by the combustion of the sul- 
phide impurities in the coal. It may be expected, therefore, that 
the same marble will weather more rapidly in a humid climate than 
in a dry one. Fog and mist have an accentuated effect as they 
absorb relatively large proportions of the acids and enable the 
moisture to penetrate deeply into the stone. 

A dolomite marble, under the same conditions and of equal 
quality in regard to textural characters, should prove more resistent 
to ordinary weathering agencies than a calcite marble. The fact is, 
however, that many dolomites succumb rather rapidly on exposure 
to the weather, as is shown in some examples that have been em- 
ployed for building purposes in the East. Decay in these cases may 
be attributed mainly to the possession of an open weakly bonded 
texture which facilitates the penetration of moisture and attack by 

The dolomite marbles of southeastern New York include ex- 
amples of exceptionally good building materials which have with- 
stood well the severe tests of our climate and also others that have 
decayed rather rapidly under the same conditions. Smock ^ has 
given particulars of the relative durability of different marbles used 
in New York City, and states that some of the dolomites have a 
durability compared with that of the best sandstones. The old 
United States assay office in Wall street was built in 1823 of Tucka- 
hoe marble ; though yellow from age, the surface remained smooth 
and the edges sharp, whereas the Italian marbles used in the caps 
of the columns were much weathered. An example of rapid decay 
is found in the State Hall in Albany which was built between 1835 

1 Building Stone in New York. N. Y. State Museum Bui. 10, 1890, p. 292-94. 


and 1842 of dolomitic marble from Ossining. The outer walls are 
roughened by pitting and scaling, and the cornices, lintels and 
columns are so much disintegrated by solution and frost as to 
present a very bad appearance. The stone is coarse and mealy 
in texture, ill suited for building purposes. 

The composition of a marble, so far as relates to the relative 
percentages of calcium and magnesium, probably has a very sub- 
ordinate influence upon weathering qualities. Much more im- 
J3ortant is the texture, and this is a feature that varies greatly with 
each particular quarry. The size of grain is not necessarily an 
indication one way or the other ; though the coarse stones may 
possess larger and more continuous pores, their grains present re- 
latively smaller surfaces to the attack of solvents than do the fine- 
grained sorts. The main elements determining the weathering qual- 
ities are the degree of compactness and the coherence between the 
grains. These can be ascertained by physical tests for porosity 
and tensile strength, and by study of thin sections under the 

The presence of silicates in large crystals is detrimental to marble 
used for outside work, since there is not the same coherence between 
the crystals of silicates and those of the carbonates as between the 
carbonates alone, and consequently moisture gains access along their 
boundaries. Sulphides are still more obnoxious, not only produc- 
ing iron stains, but also causing decomposition and pitting of the 
surface through the action of the sulphuric acid which is always 
formed by their oxidation. 

Dale ^ has made some interesting observations on the effects of 
the New England climate upon marble monuments and tombstones 
and states that white marbles after exposure for 75 or 100 years 
have so far weathered as to indicate the complete efifacement of 
the lettering within 300 years of the date of cutting. 

Smock ^ gives as a quotation, the following notes in regard to 
the durability of the Gouverneur marble : 

The Gouverneur marble was employed at least fifty years ago for 
gravestones, and in the Riverside Cemetery, at Gouverneur, these 
old gravestones, bearing the dates from 1812 onward, can now be 
seen. As compared with the white marble headstones from Ver- 
mont it is more durable ; and there is not so luxuriant a growth of 
moss and lichen as on the latter stone, but in the case of the older 

1 The Commercial Marbles of Western Vermont. U. S. Geol. Survey Bui. 
521, 1912, p. 38. 

2 Building Stone in New York. N. Y. State Museum Bui. 10, 1890, p. 237. 


Gouverneur stone some signs of decay and disintegration, par- 
ticularly on the tops, are noticeable, and small pieces can be chipped 
off with a knife blade. The durability of the stone for building 
purposes has been tested in some of the older structures in Gouver- 


Marble is heavier than granite and has a specific gravity ranging 
from about 2.70 in the case of. calcite varieties to 2.88 for dolomites. 
These figures correspond to weights for each cubic foot of from 
168 to 180 pounds. The South Dover white marble, a nearly 
pure dolomite, has a specific gravity of 2.86 and a weight of 178.5 
pounds ; the Gouverneur slightly magnesian blue marble possesses a 
specific gravity of 2.74 and a weight of 171 pounds for each 
cubic foot. 

The compressive strength of marble varies within rather wide 
limits according to the textural features. Merrill ^ credits the 
Pleasantville coarse dolomite with the very high crushing strength 
of 22,383 pounds a square inch. The Tuckahoe marble, according 
to the same authority, gave a test of 13,076 pounds. Both figures 
refer to the strength when tested across the bed. Three samples 
of marble from the quarries of the South Dover Mai^ble Co. showed 
a minimum compressive strength of 17,401 pounds and a maximum 
of 20,882 pounds.^ These results compare well with those obtained 
from the best building marbles of other districts. 

The Gouverneur marble, represented by a sample from the quar- 
ries of the St Lawrence Marble Co., showed a strength under 
compression of 12,692 pounds a square inch.^ 

Tests of transverse and tensile strength are rarely made, though 
they afford useful data in estimating the coherence and durability 
of marble. 


The metamorphic phanerocrystalline limestones, which include all 
marbles in the true sense, as already explained, occur only in regions 
where the rock formations have been squeezed, folded and up- 
raised into mountains. Originally they were horizontally bedded, 
common limestones accumulated on the floors of the ancient seas 
by the slow aggregation of the shells of organisms that lived in 
these waters and in part perhaps by direct chemical precipitation 


1 Stones for Building and Decoration. New York, 1897, p. 461. 

2 Twentieth Annual Rep't U. S. Geol. Survey, pt 6, cont'd. 1899, p. 422. 

3 Op. cit., p. 423. 


of lime carbonate from solution. The formation of limestone by 
similar methods is going on today along the sea coast, as exemplified 
by the shell beds, coral reefs and calcareous muds which are widely 
distributed and which require only consolidation from the weight of 
overlying strata and uplift from the sea to convert them into lime- 
stones similar to those exposed in the early Paleozoic formations 
of New York State. The deposition of lime carbonate in quantity 
also takes place in fresh waters ; the beds of marl found in many 
swamps and lake basins of this section are the result of precipita- 
tion of lime which has been brought in by tributary streams and 
springs, the lime being thrown out of solution sooner or later T)y 
evaporation of the waters or through the agency of plant growth. 
There are many thousands of acres of these surface marls in the 
central and western parts of the State. 

The conversion of common limestone into marble requires great 
pressure, which in nature is developed through those crustal move- 
ments that lead to the formation of folded mountains ; under the 
stress thus exerted, accompanied by heat and probably in the pres- 
ence of moisture, the lime carbonate behaves like a mobile or plastic 
substance and is able to assume its proper crystal character, that 
of calcite. Each particle becomes a complete crystal, with the char- 
acteristic cleavage, optical properties and other features of calcite, 
though owing to the space limitations it can not assume the outward 
regularity of form which belongs to calcite when free to expand in 
all directions. The change, or metamorphism, is accompanied also 
by a rearrangement and crystallization of the impurities, as has 
already been noted. 

There are two areas in New York where crustal movements have 
taken place on a great scale during past geological ages. The 
Adirondacks in the north are a part of the old Laurentian highland 
which was uplifted in early Precambric time and subjected to great 
vicissitudes of compressive folding, faulting and invasions by 
igneous rocks before the regular stratified formations began to be 
deposited. In the southeast is the Highlands-Taconic region, of 
which the Highlands proper represent a part of the old Appalachian 
highland of Precambric age, and the Taconic a later uplift that came 
at the close of the Ordovicic period. 


The crystalline limestones of the Adirondacks appear in belts, 
elongated in a general northeast-southwest direction parallel to 


the structural trend, and in smaller patches of variable shape and 
extent which have a very unequal distribution. They are rather 
abundantly represented on the eastern side in Essex and Warren 
counties, but mainly as scattered areas that cover a few square miles 
each at most. On the north in Clinton and Franklin counties 
are a few outcrops, and these unimportant ; and the same may be 
said of the Southern Adirondacks included within Saratoga, Fulton, 
Herkimer and Lewis counties. The principal development of the 
limestones is on the northwest, in St Lawrence and Jefferson 
counties, outside the rugged mountain section but within the Pre- 
cambric crystalline formations which here extend outward across 
the St Lawrence lowland and connect with the main Canadian ex- 
panse of the rocks. Four considerable belts of limestones, besides 
numerous smaller lenses and patches, exist in this section as may be 
seen by consulting the St Lawrence sheet of the State geologic map. 
Detailed information as to their extent and general features has 
been given by C. H. Smyth.^ The most important exposure, areally 
and economically, has a length northeast and southwest of about 35 
miles, extending from the town of Canton, St Lawrence county, to 
near Antwerp village in Jefferson county, with a width of from 
I to 7 or 8 miles and an area of 175 square miles. A parallel belt 
occurs a few miles northwest, about midway between its border 
and the St Lawrence river, and has a length of 15 miles, lying in 
the towns of Macomb, Hammond and Rossie, St Lawrence county, 
and Theresa, Jefferson county. Southwest of the main area is the 
Edwards-Fowler belt of St Lawrence county, notable for its talc 
deposits. The fourth belt lies farther southeast across the St 
Lawrence-Lewis county boundary, being partly in the town of 
Pitcairn of the former county and partly in the town of Diana of 
the latter. It is about 20 miles long and perhaps 2 or 3 miles wide 
as a maximum. 

The belts are not wholly constituted of carbonate rocks, but in- 
clude more or less quartzite, schist and gneiss which have the 
appearance of being interbedded with the limestones. Altogether 
the different formations represent the metamorphosed and deeply 
eroded remnants of what once must have been an extensive and 
varied series of sediments. The series included sandstones now 
changed to quartzites, arkose which has become quartzose gneisses, 

1 See especially, Report on the Crystalline Rocks of St Lawrence County, 
N. Y. State Museum Annual Rep't 49, v. 2, 1898, p. 481-90. 


shales now altered to mica schists, argillaceous limestones that have 
become basic gneisses and amphibolites. as well as pure carbonate 
materials that are now marbles. The sediments at one time, no 
doubt, spread over the whole Adirondack region, and the present 
irregular and patchy distribution is the result of extensive erosion 
upon the formations which at dilTerent times were also invaded, 
broken up and to some extent absorbed by the great igneous masses 
which came up from below. 

The metamorphosed sediments exhibit very similar features and 
relationships wherever found in the x\dirondacks, so that they are 
regarded as members of a single geologic series, which is called the 
Grenville series from their analogy with the Canadian formations 
that bear that name. Little is known as to their time-relations 
beyond the fact that they antedate all the other Adirondack rocks, 
and consequently must have been laid down very early in the Pre- 
cambric period. Subsequent to their deposition, but before the 
opening of Camhric time, there was a long era characterized by 
intervals of great igneous activity in which granite, .anorthosite, 
syenite, ga'bbro and finally diabase were erupted. None of the mem- 
bers of the Grenville carries recognizable fossil remains, though the 
abundance of graphite in some of the strata, particularly the quartz- 
ites, leads to the inference that life existed at the time. 

In most of the belts the limestones and the accompanying schists, 
quartzites and gneisses are tilted and present their upturned broken 
edges at the surface. The angle of inclination is usually high, 
dips of less than 30° being exceptional, whereas a nearly vertical 
attitude is quite common. The strike is nearly always between 
the north and easterly compass points, in most cases nearly north- 
east, but is subject to local variations. The beds over large areas 
may maintain monoclinal arrangement, with the inclination in the 
same direction ; this is the common condition in fact, as few in- 
stances have come to notice where the dips of adjacent belts are 
in opposite directions. The general high inclination and the pres- 
ence of minor folds seem to indicate, however, that the beds are 
not simply tilted up by a great monoclinal flexure, but that they have 
a much more complicated structure through the presence of anti- 
clinal and synclinal folds strongly compressed. The actual rela- 
tions that exist in any of the belts can not be stated at the present 
time, and it is still uncertain just what the order of the sedimentary 
succession may be. 

The St Lawrence county belts are much broken by irruptive 
masses, of mainly granitic nature. These rocks have a massive to 


gneissoid appearance, but lack the schistosity of the Grenville 
gneisses, are prevaihng reddish or gray in color and belong mostly 
to the biotite and hornblende varieties of granite. They form 
bosses of some size and also sills and dikes, while small offshoots 
cut through the sedimentary gneisses in a network of interlacing 
veins. They exert noticeable contact effects upon the limestones 
which in their vicinity may contain such minerals as tourmaline, 
vesuvianite oyroxene, tremolite, fluorite etc., often well crystallized. 


The crystalline limestone in the area about Gouverneur has 
furnished most of the marble that has been quarried in the Adiron- 
dack region. The area is a part of the belt which extends from 
the town of Canton, St Lawrence county, to near Antwerp, in 
Jefferson county, and which is traversed for much of the distance 
by the R. W. & O. branch of the New York Central Railroad. 

The limestone in general is medium to coarse crystalline and white 
or light gray in color, but sometimes a dark blue as in one or two 
of the quarries. It is a calcite limestone, with a varying but gener- 
ally small percentage of magnesia. The carbonates amount to about 
95 per cent of the whole mass, of which nearly 90 per cent is 
calcium carbonate. Rarely the magnesia assumes sufficient import- 
ance to characterize the rock as a dolomite. The change from a 
calcite-limestone to dolomite takes place abruptly, but whether it 
reflects an original variation in the conditions of deposition or is 
due to secondary processes after the strata were laid down, is 
not clear. In the former case it would be expected to find the 
variation related to the bedded structure, but such relation can not 
be established. The occurrence of dolomite is quite local and un- 
important as compared to the great body of limestone. On the other 
hand, the limestone shows well-marked zones or bands parallel to 
the bedding in which quartz is abundant and which seems to be 
the result of impurities included when the rock was being deposited. 

The following analyses illustrate the chemical composition of the 
Gouverneur marbles. No. i is based on a sample from the Extra 
Dark quarry of the St Lawrence Marble Quarries ; no. 2. quarry of 
the Gouverneur Marble Co ; no. 3, Rylestone quarry ; and no. 4, 
Northern New York quarry. No. 5 represents the dolomitic marble, 
formerly worked by the White Crystal Marble Co. Nos. i, 2 and 3 
are by R. \\'. Jones of the State Museum. 






1.26 . 

1. 01 






' .63} 
















• 03 














The Gouverneur marble is quarried from a small area southwest 
of that town. The quarries, with few exceptions, lie along a nar- 
row belt which extends for a little over a mile in a northeast-south- 
west direction. They lie on the outcrop of the " vein " or bed 
which dips northwest at an angle ranging from 15° to 30° on the 
northeast end to 80° or 90° in the southwesterly quarries. The 
vein has a pitch that is toward the southwest at an angle of 20° 
or 25°. There is some suggestion in the field relations that the 
marble occurs along an overturned pitching fold. 

In color and texture the marble shows variety, though the differ- 
ences in composition are not especially prominent. It is a mottled 
white and grayish blue, or light and dark blue, running in places 
to an almost solid dark blue, which is the color most sought for. 
In the lighter mottled sorts the grain is moderately coarse and 
somewhat uneven, with the lighter and darker calcite segregated 
more or less into separate areas. The individual calcite particles 
mostly have a diameter from i to 2 mm. In the dark-blue marble, 
the grain is much finer, the calcite averaging only a fraction of a 
millimeter. The bluish color seems to be traceable to the presence 
of graphitic carbon in very small submicroscopic particles. Free 
carbon was detected by R. W. Jones in the analyses already given, 
but in too small amount to be separately weighed. That the vari- 
ation of color conforms more or less closely to the bedding is 
evident from a study of the relations revealed in the dififerent 
quarries. The lighter colors are found in the overlying beds of 
the northwestern section, and the fine-grained dark marble is from 
the structurally lower beds on the southeast. This feature has 
been confirmed as well by the results of core-drilling. 

The marble is susceptible of high polish and has a luster and 
texture that resemble some gray granites. It is well adapted for 
monumental work and the better grades are used mainly for that 


. o 

a, <!J 





purpose. Its weathering qualities are attested by nearly a century 
of use as monumental and building stone. For building stone it 
has found considerable sale in the large towns and cities "of New 
York and adjoining states, especially for public structures, churches 

Fig. 14 Map of marble district near Gouverneur. i is Gouverneur; 2, St 
Lawrence; 3, Sullivan; 4, Callahan; 5, Extra Dark; 6, Northern New York 

and fine residences. In rock face, as used for building stone, the 
marble has a medium gray color, whereas the cut or patent ham- 
mered surface of trimmings shows much lighter. The selling 
prices vary with the color and uniformity. 

Determinations of the specific gravity and absorption of the 

1 88 


Gouverneur marble gave the following results : specific gravity, 
2.74; corresponding to a weight of 171 pounds to the cubic foot; 
ratio of absorption .111 per cent; pore space, .305 per cent. 

The St Lawrence Company's quarries 

The quarries of this company include two openings near the 
mill and railroad track, a little more than a mile southwest of 
Gouverneur, and a third lying to the east on a separate vein. The 
latter, known as the Extra Dark quarry, alone was in operation 

Fig. 15 Gouverneur marble in thin section, showing the irregular boundaries 
between the particles and firmly interlocked texture. Enlarged 25 diameters 

at the time of the writer's visit in the fall of 1912. It is an open- 
ing 125 feet long, 80 feet wide and 20 to 30 feet deep. At the 
surface the marble is of medium 'bluish color somewhat mottled 
with white, but becomes dark blue below, which is the grade par- 
ticularly sought, as the other quarries supply lighter stock. The 
beds dip northwest 30° and pitch southwest 25°. Two vertical 
joint systems running N. 30° W. and N. 65° E. are in evidence. 
As shown in the accompanying illustration, the quarry is crossed 
by a vertical trap dike which is left standing as a wall ; the dike 

Plate 27 

Dark gray marble. Gouverneur 

Mottled gray marble. Gouverneur 


follows the northeasterly jointing and is from 2 to 3 feet thick, 
consisting of a serpentinous groundmass with lath-shaped feldspars. 

The two openings near the mill, known as the St Lawrence 
quarries, are vertical rock cuts with an area of about 20,000 square 
feet each and a depth of 80 feet in the northerly quarry and 40 feet 
in the southerly one. They have supplied large quantities of build- 
ing marble, of which examples are seen in the First Presbyterian 
church, Gouverneur; Grace church, Watertown; Jay Gould Memo- 
rial, Roxbury; Third Presb3^terian church, Rochester; and in many 
other structures. For building purposes it is mostly used as rock 
face ashlar which has a bright gray color. The monumental stock 
is mainly the selected darker quality that is sold under the name 
"St Lawrence" but includes some lighter stone called "Adirondack." 
The beds here dip about 20° to the northwest. They have been 
penetrated to a depth of 400 feet in a drill hole near the cutting 

The quarry equipment includes six channeling machines, two 
gadders and three derricks. The mill has sixteen gangs of saws, 
besides rubbing beds, lathes, and polishing machines. Electric 
power is used, supplied by the Hailesboro water power plant. 

A chemical analysis of the marble from Extra Dark quarry is 
found on page 186. 

The company states that the marble has a specific gravity of 2.76, 
corresponding to a weight of 172 pounds to the cubic foot. The 
ratio of absorption is .160. 

Gouverneur Marble Company's quarries 
The Gouverneur Marble Company owns quarries in the north- 
eastern section of the marble belt, adjoining the property of the 
St Lawrence company. The principal one is a cut about 250 feet 
long and nearly as wide, with a depth of about 50 feet. A new open- 
ing 125 feet long and 50 feet wide has been made just southeast 
of the large quarry with which it will eventually be connected. 
The bedding here dips very low to the northwest. The jointing is 
in two systems, N. 40° W. and N. 50° E. which with the floor 
seams divide the marble into rectangular blocks. A test hole in 
the new quarry penetrated the marble to a depth of 95 feet. 

The product runs mostly to the medium and light varieties, but 
the new opening shows considerable darker marble from the under- 
lying beds. The grain is moderately coarse, with a grain diameter 


of 2 to 3 mm. There is a little phlogopite in small but visible scales 
distributed through the carbonates. The marble from these quarries 
is often beautifully mottled and such material is used in polished 
work. As a building stone it has been employed in many large 
structures, notably in the Sacred Heart and St Anthony's churches 
in Syracuse, and the high school in Schenectady. 

The mill, situated near the quarries, is equipped with eleven gangs 
of saws. 

Northern New York Marble Company's quarries 

The property of the Northern New York Marble Co. lies in the 
southwestern section of the Gouverneur district separated from the 
other quarries by a considerable stretch of undeveloped ground. 
Its position is east of the extension of the line connecting the more 
northerly openings, which indicates that it is on a lower vein struc- 
turally than the others. Otherwise there must be a fault or a wide 
deviation of the strike in the interval. There is some similarity in 
the character of the marble with that of the Extra Dark' quarry of 
the St Lawrence company, which lies on the footwall side of the 
main belt. The strike of the beds here is N. 70^-80° E. and the 
dip 80° north. 

The main quarry measures 140 feet by 75 feet at the surface and 
is over 200 feet in depth. It has been abandoned on account of 
the depth. A second quarry 100 feet south has furnished the recent 
output; it is an opening 120 feet long and with a depth of from 40 
to 65 feet. In 1912 the development of a third quarry was begun, 
situated to the west of the latter, with which it will eventually con- 
nect. The quarries are. equipped with two derricks and have the 
usual oufit of channelers and gadders. 

The marble has a dark blue color for the most part, averaging 
much darker than the usual Gouverneur product, and is also finer 
textured. The grain diameter ranges from 0.5 to i mm in the 
darkest samples. As shown by the analysis on page 186, it is a high 
grade magnesian limestone with only about 2 per cent impurities. 
The product is sold under the name of " Northern New York " 
and is graded according to the presence or absence of lighter veins 
or clouds in the dark blue ground. It is mainly in demand for 
monumental work. A good proportion of the lighter quality is 
hammer-faced, not polished, a finish which gives the appearance of 
tooled granite. 




In' the quarry walls a few knots from silicate inclusions are in 
evidence; they rarely exceed a foot in diameter. Open joints and 
fissures occur in the upper 15 feet where the marble is more or 
less discolored and disintegrated, but below the stone is fresh, uni- 
form and little broken by joints. The surface has been polished 
and in places is deeply grooved by glacial ice. 

The Rylestone quarry 

The Rylestone quarry, worked up to a short time ago, lies west 
of the main belt, a mile or more, on the side of a low ridge. It 
was not operated in 1912 when inspected by the writer. The marble 
is bluish gray, with an equal mixture of white and blue calcite. 
The grain is fine to medium, the particles ranging from i to 
3 mm in diameter. The texture is rather uneven. Apparently there 
has been considerable loss in quarrying from the presence of vugs, 
which are apt to occur in the midst of an otherwise sound block. 
These vugs take the form of small round cavities and of seams a 
foot or more long and are lined with crystallized calcite, marcasite 
and brown tourmaline. 

The quarry face extends along the base of the hill for 100 feet 
and is 50 feet high. In the last operations the stone was broken 
down by blasting, which has left much waste. A mill equipped with 
eight gangs of saws is situated on the property. 

Other quarries near Gouverneur 

The John J. Sullivan quarry, now closed, is situated 500 feet 
west of the St Lawrence quarries. The pit is about 100 feet long 
and 50 feet wide. The marble exposed on the edge near the sur- 
face is coarse-banded, white and blue, of rather light appearance. 
Some of the beds show disseminated scales of mica, tremolite 
crystals and other silicates. The quarry equipment has been dis- 
mantled and the pit allowed to fill with water. 

The Callahan quarry is a small opening near the Extra Dark 
quarry of the St Lawrence company. The marble is of medium, 
bluish gray color and moderately coarse texture. The quarry was 
last worked five or six years ago. 

The D. J. Whitney quarries lie near those of the Northern New 
York Marble Co. They have yielded considerable quantities of 
medium to dark-colored stock, used for monumental work. They 
have been inoperative for several years. 

The White Crystal Marble Co. opened a quarry about ten years 


ago in the vicinity of Gouverneur for the supply of building 
material. The stone has a coarse texture and is pure white. The 
analysis on page 186 shows it to be a dolomite. Physical tests 
made at the Watertown Arsenal (Mass.) indicated the crushing 
strength of one sample to be 25,250 pounds to the square inch ; of 
another sample 23,070 pounds to the square inch. This is well 
above the average of most marbles, and the stone is probably equal 
to any practical requirement in regard to strength. The quarry is 
owned by C. A. Lux of Syracuse. 

Furnace flux is shipped by Corrigan, McKinney & Co. from a 
quarry situated 2^^ miles north of Gouverneur, the output going 
to the company's furnace at Charlotte. 


A white, coarse dolomitic marble occurs in the town of Fowler as 
a part of the belt of crystalline limestones which inclose the talc 
beds of that section. An extensive exposure of the brilliant white 
stone is found on the Abbott farm just west of the hamlqt of Little 
York. It has been worked to some extent by A. B. Scott, principally 
for shipment to makers of artificial stone. The marble is free of 
stain and can be obtained in large blocks. According to information 
supplied by Mr Scott, the stone shows 18 per cent magnesia (MgO) 
and about 8 per cent of foreign matter. 


An active marble-quarrying industry was conducted a few years 
since in the northeastern section of the limestone belt, south of 
Canton and in some of the small outlying areas of limestone in that 
part of St Lawrence county. An account-of some of the later 
operations has been given by W. N. Logan.^ 

The E. E. Stevens quarry is ij^ miles southwest of Canton 
village. The stone has a grayish color, with a close resemblance to 
gray marble on cut surfaces. The output in the years preceding 
1902 was valued at $40,000 annually. 

The Nickerson quarry is mentioned by Stevens as containing a 
light yellow marble with serpentine inclusions. It is on the Nick- 
erson farm 2 miles south of Canton village. 

White marble was produced at one time in the Clarkson quarry, 
near DeKalb Junction. The output in the last year of operations 
is placed by Logan at $15,000. 

123d Report of the State Geologist, i'j04, p. :i8-ig. 






The small area of crystalline limestone near Colton, south of 
Potsdam, has been developed in one or two places for marble. One 
quarry is situated on the Peter Fallon farm, about 2 miles east of 
Colton village, and another on the farm of J. C. Leary in the same 


Building and monumental marble has been quarried on a small 
scale in years past at Harrisville, Lewis county. The quarry 
is about 500 feet north of the railroad at the base of a low hill and 
consists of an opening 75 feet square. It is an indistinctly banded 
grayish marble, light in tone, and rather coarse, with a grain 
diameter of i to 3 mm. The banding apparently is a bedding 
feature, the darker bands containing a higher percentage of im- 
purities than the lighter ones. The direction of the banding is 
northeast-southwest and the dip 40° northwest. The impurities, 
which consist of serpentine, pyroxene and some sulphides, would 
seem to be a drawback to the use of the stone for polished work. 
An analysis of an average sample made by R. W. Jones gave the 
following percentages: 

Si02 1.64 

FezOa .04 

MgCOs 21 . 79 

CaCOa 76.17 



Quarries have been opened in the crystalline limestones in the 
vicinity of Natural Bridge for the manufacture of lime. The lime- 
stones are coarse, dolomitic and as a rule not adapted for cut stone. 

The New York Lime Co. has carried on operations for several 
years in a quarry at Sterlin'gbush, north of Natural Bridge, and 
also at the latter place and at Bonaparte Lake where the dolomites 
attain a degree of purity requisite for lime manufacture. The pro- 
duct is mainly sold to pulp manufacturers for use in the sulphite 


Crystalline limestones occur in many places in the Highlands 
region and in the bordering metamorphic area to the north and 
south. They are specially prominent on the east side of the Hudson 
where they underlie many of the north-south stream valleys of 


Westchester, Putnam and Dutchess counties, but also occur in 
Orange county as a continuation of the northern New Jersey belts. 
Those of a thoroughly crystalline character are associated with 
schists, quartzites and thin^bedded gneisses, forming a series of 
interfolded metamorphosed sediments that bear some resemblance 
in certain aspects to the Grenville series of the Adirondacks. Their 
stratigraphic position is doubtful ; it would appear that they may 
represent more than one period of formation, as indicated by the 
varying degree i of metamorphism which they. have undergone. 
. in Westchester county the limestone is coarsely crystalline, white, 
and usually carries magnesia in proportions characteristic of dolo- 
mites, though in the very northern part of the county there are 
limestones with low magnesia. The name " Inwood " was first 
applied to the limestones by F. J. H. Merrill, who later advocated 
the view of the general equivalence of the limestones in this section 
with those of western New England and withdrew that name in 
favor of the prior term " Stockbridge " limestone. Merrill and 
other geologists have regarded the Westchester county limestones 
as a southerly extension of the belts that are found north of the 
Highlands where they are much less metamorphosed and are known 
to be of Cambro-Ordovicic age. 

More recently Berkey has indicated the possibility of the ex- 
istence of two main series of limestones. The Westchester county 
representatives, accompanied by the Lowerre quartzite and Man- 
hattan schist, show no marked unconformity with the underlying 
gneisses, and are considered as Precambric. The second assemblage 
includes the less changed types of white and blue limestones, de- 
veloped mainly to the north of the Highlands, which have been 
known as the Wappinger limestone and which are associated with 
the Poughquag quar'tzite and the Hudsoh River slates. These 
shtvw a marked unconformity in contact with the gneiss formation. 
Small bands and lenses of impure limestone occur within the High- 
lands gneisses, and are probably the oldest of all, that is of Gren- 
ville age. The latter have little economic importance. 

The crystalline limestones of southeastern ■ New York are pre- 
vailingly high in magnesia, though there are some localities where 
they carry under 5 per cent. In the developed marble quarries the 
stone is usually a true dolomite. The proportion of lime carbonate 
ranges from 55 per cent as a lower limit to about 70 per cent, while 
tjbie magnesium carbonate amounts to frqm:30 to 45 per cent. The 
siliceous impurities are usually low, not over 2 or 3 per cent of the 

Plate 30 

Dark gray marble. Gouverneur 

Green marble ( Ophicalcite ), Moriah, Essex county 


whole. They are due to inclusions of quartz, mica, tremolite, 
diopside and more rarely tourmaline. 

The building marbles are found in the more massive, heavily 
bedded parts of the formations. They are predominantly white, 
either a uniform brilliant white, or white clouded or banded with 
blue. They are used both for exterior and interior work. Ex- 
amples of their architectural employment may be seen in many 
large structures in New York City, especially among the buildings 
erected twenty or more years ago, as at that time the Westchester 
county stone enjoyed greater favor among architects than any other 
native marble. 

In durability, the dolomitic marbles from southeastern New York 
show considerable variation, as has been remarked in the discussion 
of weathering qualities. Some of the stone is ill-adapted to build- 
ing purposes on account of the fact that certain phases show a 
sugary, loosely bonded texture and decay rapidly when exposed to 
the elements. It is unfortunate that such stone should ever have 
been employed in buildings. On the other hand, the product of 
many of the quarries has proved, under the rather trying conditions 
of the eastern cities, to be an excellent architectural stone, equal in 
weathering qualities to any of the other marbles in common use. 
Rapid weathering apparently does not result from any peculiarities in 
the composition of the stone, but depends upon a lack of coherence 
and compactness whereby the mechanical influences of frost and 
temperature changes are enabled to destroy the bond. Normally, 
dolomite is harder and more resistent to the attack of solvents than 
calcium limestones. 


Marble for building and ornamental purposes was once quarried 
near Dover Plains. The ledges may be seen along the east side of 
Tenmile creek southeast of the town. One of them is now the site 
of an active quarry which is worked by the Dutchess County Lime 
Co. for the manufacture of lime. The stone is a fine but rather 
loosely grained dolomite, blue or white in color, and quite free of 
silicates. The dolomite grains are round and not firmly welded, so 
that they weather out readily when the stone is exposed to the 
atmosphere. The beds in this section strike about N. 10° E. and 
stand on edge or are inclined to the east at an angle of 80° to 85°, 
The color changes abruptly from white to blue across the strike, 
apparently with the different beds. With its low percentage of 
soluble matter (2 to 3 per cent), the stone is well adapted for 
making magnesian lime. 




South Dover Marble Company's quarries 
The South Dover Marble Co. has large marble quarries 2 milej 
in a direct line northeast of Wingdale station on the Harlem Rail- 

O % 




Fig. 16 Map of South Dover quarries, i is South Dover; 2, Dover White 


road. The belt of crystalline limestone in which lie the quarries 
stretches along the flanks of a broad gneiss ridge which extends 




Plate 32 

Upper quarry of the South Dover Marble Company. Wingdale 


north and south on the New York-Connecticut bouiidary. The sur- 
face is flat or sHghtly hilly in contrast with the rugged outcrop of 
the gneiss. The limestone maintains a nearly uniform course 
slightly east of north and shows usually an easterly inclination, but 
for short distances the dip may change to the west. Along with 
the limestone appears a white quartzite that may be seen a little to 
the west of the quarry openings. 

The product of the quarries is a uniform white marble suited for 
building and interior work. The grain is fine ; the particles 
average from .75 to i mm diameter and are prismatic or subrounded 
in form. In the exposed beds the marble appears very compact and, 
except for the upper few feet just below the soil, is neither stained 
nor weathered. Its appearance in thin section is shown in figure 17. 
Physical tests indicate a specific gravity of 2.86, ratio of absorp- 
tion .144 per cent, and pore space .51 per cent. The weight is 
[78.5 pounds to the cubic foot. Strength tests made by Prof. Ira H. 
Woolson in the laboratories of the School of Mines, Columbia 
University, gave ultimate resistances to compression of 17,401 
pounds to the square inch on one sample, 18,836 on another and 
20,882 on a third, tested on the bed.^ An analysis supplied by the 
company indicates that the lime and magnesia occur in the propor- 
tions of a true dolomite. 

SiOa .70 

AI2O3 .Z7 

FesOa .25 

MgO 20.25 

CaO 30.63 

Na^O .12 

K2O .46 

Loss and undet .56 

CO2 46.66 


The company has two quarries, the one being on the east slope of 
a low ridge facing the gneiss ridge and the second a little farther 
up the slope and northwest of the first. The lower quarry has an 
extreme length of 250 feet, a width of 150 feet as a maximum and 
a depth of 135 feet. There are three derricks in place. The other 
opening is 150 feet long, 75 feet wide and about 60 feet deep. It 
has two derricks and an overhead cableway, the latter for carrying 

^ U. S. Geol. Surv. 20th Ann. Rep't, pt 3, p. 422. 


the waste to the dump. Both openings extend downward vertically, 
both with the bedding, which dips easterly about 40° in the south 
quarry and westerly 50° to 60° in the north, the dip reversing 
within a distance of 100 feet. There are few open joints or fissures, 
though one rather conspicuous opening in the southern quarry ex- 
tends to a depth of 50 feet. There are occasional bunches of sili- 
cates and a little pyrite appears on some of the joint surfaces. 

Fig. 17 South Dover marble in thin section. Enlarged 10 times 

The South Dover Marble Co. has a cutting and polishing works 
at Wingdale station with which the quarries are connected by an 
electric tram. The product has been used in many large structures 
in New York and the eastern cities, and is one of the standard 
architectural materials of this countyr Some of the important 
buildings in which it may be seen are the Tiffany Building, Blair 
Building, Stock Exchange (interior). Masonic Temple and Charles 
Building in New York, Essex County court house in New Jersey, 
Munsey Building and House of Representatives office building in 

Dover White Marble Company's quarry 

The quarry recently worked by the Dover White Marble Co. lies 
on the east bank of Tenmile creek ij^ miles northwest of the South 
Dover Company's quarry. It is a small side-hill opening in a white 
dolomitic marble which is streaked or banded with gray. The bands 
consist of quartz and sericitic layers, arranged parallel to the 

Plate 33 

Dover white marble. Wingdale, Dutchess county 


Black marble. Glens Falls 


bedding. They are somewhat wavy when seen in cross-section, as 
they have been subjected to powerful compression during the up- 
lifting of the beds which stand nearly on end. The strike is about 
north and south and the dip 80° east. The bedding joints have 
been healed by flowage and crystallization of the carbonates, though 
still obscured in places as blind checks and seams. The marble has 
a fine grain with average diameters of less than .5 mm. The pro- 
duct has been employed mainly for veneer and wainscoting, for 
which purpose it is shown across the bedding so as to bring out 
the banding. The quarries were closed in 19 12. 

turner's corners, PUTNAM COUNTY 

A gray marble was quarried at one time near Turner's Corners. 
The stone is rather coarse and in the outcrop shows a crumbly loose 
grain. It was employed in the dam at Sodus on the Croton water 


A magnesian limestone of considerable purity and white to gray 
in color is found along Sprout Brook valley, north of Peekskill. It 
has been worked to some extent for lime, notably on the Frost 
place where there is a quarry and kiln, now idle. A sample of the 
stone selected to afford an average of the whole quarry face showed 
the following results, as reported to the writer by T. M. Williams 
(H. D. Gehret, analyst) : 

SiOo 70 

^'-'^'X 1.35 

MgCOa 6.00 

CaCOa 91-40 

P2O5 03 

H,0 25 


The crystalline limestone continues northward into Putnam 
county and outcrops in force on the Couch, Slater and Barrett 
farms, in some places possessing a uniform white color and even 
texture Hke the best marbles of this region. The stone differs from 
the latter, however, in it relatively small magnesia content. 
Another analysis of the stone from the Couch farm, by H. D. 
Gehret, showed : 


Si02 .90 

pto'.} -B 

MgCOs 10. 00 

CaCOs 86.60 

P2O5 02 

H2O 10 


The locality at Ossining has interest as affording structural 
marble for several buildings, including the State Hall at Albany. 
The quarries are situated in the yard of the State prison. The 
marble is a white or gray dolomite, rather crumbly in texture, and 
hence not well adapted for exterior work. 

The Ossining Lime Co. has a flux and lime quarry south of the 
village near the railroad. The stone contains about 20 per cent 
magnesia, as shown by the following analysis : 

Si02 87 

AI2O3 57 

Fe^Os 25 

MgO 19.9s 

CaO 31 40 


A quarry about a mile north of White Plains and just west of 
the Harlem Railroad has been worked as a source of material for 
lime and crushed stone. It is known as the James O'Connell 
quarry. An analysis by Huntington gives the following com- 
ponents '} 

sia 2.08 




MgCOs 37.79 

CaCOs 58.72 

99. IS 


A white dolomitic marble that is found near Pleasantville has 
supplied considerable building material for New York City and the 

1 Eckel. " The Quarry Industrj^ in Southeastern New York." 20th Report 
N. Y. State Geologist, 1902, p. 172. 





towns along the Hudson river. There are several quarries, now 
abandoned, of which those formerly worked by the Snowflake 
Marble Co. have been the principal sources of architectural marble. 
The beds of the best quality measure about lOO feet thick and stand 
in vertical position; they are pure white, with very little foreign 
matter. The grain is extremely coarse, so that on a fractured sur- 
face the cleavage planes of the dolomite appear as large rhombic 
mirrorlike faces. A specimen in the State Museum collections has 
an average grain diameter of 8-10 mm. The texture is close and 
well knit, the dry stone absorbing only .15 per cent of water, ac- 
cording to Smock. The specific gravity is 2.87 and the weight 179 
pounds to the cubic foot. Determinations of crushing strength by 
General Gilmore gave a maximum of 24,825 and a minimum of 
18,750 pounds to the square inch from six tests. The following 
analyses illustrate the chemical composition of the marble: 


Si02 2.31 .10 .29 


Mg-COs 36.80 45-04 43-11 

CaCOa 59-84 54-12 54-8o 













Total 99.60 99-44 

. Analysis no. i is by H. Ries ;^ no. 2 by C. F. Chandler ;- and 
no. 3 by F. A. Wilber.^ 

The stone is too coarse for sawed or polished work. Its archi- 
tectural quality may be observed in St Patrick's Cathedral (lower 
walls) in New York and the Methodist Episcopal Church in 


A very active quarry industry was centered a few years ago at 
Tuckahoe. There are several openings in a narrow belt of dolomitic 
marble which extends in a north-northeast direction and is inclosed 
by Fordham gneiss on the west and the Manhattan schist on the 
east. The marble beds range from 40 or 50 feet to 100 feet or more 
in width. Their outcrop is marked by a surface depression between 
the ridges of harder rocks. 

1 N. Y. State Museum Bui. 44, 1901, p. 832. 

2 U. S. Geol. Surv. 20th Annual Rep't, pt VI, 1899, p. 42; 

3 N. Y. State Museum Bui. 10, 1890, table facing p. 358. 


One of the leading quarries for architectural stone is that last 
operated by the Waverly Marble Co., which suspended work in 
1908, and previously operated in succession by Norcross Bros., 
A. T. Stewart and by A. Maxwell. It is an open pit 600 feet long, 
150 feet wide, and 75 feet deep. A large part of the excavation 
afforded material suitable for architectural use, which may be seen 
in some of the large structures in New York, Boston and other 
cities. Among the more recent buildings that have been erected 
from the marble are those of the New York and Metropolitan Life 
Companies in New York. It is a coarse, brilliant white dolornite, 
very hard and almost devoid of silicate impurities except for oc- 
casional mica scales. The texture is very close ; the grains have 
rhombic and irregular sections and range in diameter from i to 
5 mm. It is thoroughly massive in appearance. 

Since the quarries have been closed some marble has been shipped 
from the stock piles and the waste also has been employed in the 
manufacture of artificial stone. The Emerson-Norris Co. of New 
York has a plant at the quarries for making all kinds of artificial 
building stone, for which the white marble serves as the basis. 

The Tuckahoe or Young's quarry lies in the center of the de- 
veloped section. It is a cut 600 feet long and 100 feet in maximum 
width. The stone resembles the product from the Waverly quarry 
but is somewhat coarser. The quarry has furnished material lately 
for crushed stone for use in white concrete. The Kapailo Manu- 
facturing Co. pumped out the workings in 1912 and have carried on 
work in a small way. 

The Masterton or New York quarry lies on the south end and 
consists of two openings. It was very actively worked in the sixties 
and seventies of the last century. Of late years it has supplied 
material for making lime and marble dust. A polished sample in 
the State Museum collections shows a coarse, white dolomite with 
brownish inclusions of tremolite more or less completely altered to 
talc. The stone contains lime and magnesia in the proportions of 
true dolomite. Its specific gravity is 2.87, equivalent to 178 pounds 
to the cubic foot. The dry material, according to Smock, absorbs 
0.14 per cent water. The following chemical analyses are based 
on the material of this quarry, but exemplify the general character 
of Tuckahoe marble. 

I 2 3 

Si02 .24 

AI2O3 .19 

Fe203 .21 .21 


MgO 21.25 20.71 20.77 

MgCOs 43.62 

CaO 30.16 j:: 30.63 

CaCOs 54.69 

CO2 47.3 46.66 

Insol 1.33 ,91 

99-35 99-59 

Analysis no. i is by W. F, Hillebrand ; no. 2 by P. deP. Ricketts ; 
no. 3 by F. A. Wilber. 

Several kinds of unmetamorphosed limestones that occur in the 
State have been used for ornamental stones and may be included 
with the marbles for purposes of description. 


The Paleozoic limestones at Glens Falls, which are exposed in 
cliffs on both sides of the Hudson river, contain at their base a 
thick-bedded, fine-grained black limestone of Black River age. 
The layer is about 12 feet thick. The overlying limestones and 
shaly layers belong to the lowermost Trenton beds and are known as 
the Glens Falls limestone. The thicker and finer limestones are 
quarried for lime, building stone and other purposes, while the 
black layer yields also a good black marble. When polished, the 
latter shows a dense uniform black surface, scarcely distinguishable 
in appearance from the best of the imported black marbles. It is 
hard and very fine in grain. Large quantities were quarried and 
cut at one time, but the demand has fallen off in recent years. The 
stone was used largely for floor tiling, for which it was well 
adapted on account of its good wearing qualities and permanency 
of color. It has been made also into mantels, wainscoting, table 
tops and other interior decorative work. The principal shipper of 
late years has been Finch, Pruyn Si Co. who use the materials also 
for lime and crushed stone. Smock states that the black marble 
has a specific gravity of 2.718 and weighs 169.4 pounds to the cubic 
foot. G. P. Merrill gives crushing tests on limestone from Glens 
Falls which may refer to the black layer, although not so stated. 
The strength on the bed was 11,475 pounds and on the edge 10,750 
pounds to the square inch. 


A fine black limestone is found in the Chazy beds which underlie 
the long neck of land that projects into Lake Champlain from the 


Essex county shore. The beds contain from i6 to i8 feet of work- 
able limestone, well adapted for building material, mostly of a gray 
or bluish gray color. Examples of the architectural use of the 
limestone are to be seen in the Reformed Church on Swan street, 
Albany, the eastern foundations and subbasement of the State 
Capitol, in the Brooklyn Bridge piers and other structures. The 
black layers were employed for ornamental work. A polished 
specimen in the collections of the State Museum shows that the 
stone is somewhat coarser than the Glens Falls material, with visible 
particles of crystalline calcite, but the color is rather a bluish black 
than a dense jet black. The quarries have not been worked in 
recent years. 


Quarries at Bluff Point, south of Plattsburg, supply an excellent 
" shell " marble which is found in the Chazy formation. The stone 
consists of fossil fragments, mostly rounded red and pink particles 
which have been derived from crinoid stems, with dark fragments 
of brachiopods in less abundance. The red particles measure from 
2 to 5 mm in diameter. The fossils are inclosed in a gray groundmass 
that shows many glistening calcite cleavages, the texture being partly 
crystalline, thus approaching that of a true marble. As a conse- 
quence of this texture the stone takes a good polish, and the vari- 
colored fossils lend an ornamental effect which is quite attractive. 
It has been sold as " Lepanto " marble, mainly for use in interior 
decoration. The quarries are now worked by the Vermont Marble 
Co. and the product is shipped to that company's works for cutting 
and polishing. In character the stone is a high-grade calcium lime- 
stone, containing 95 or 96 per cent calcium carbonate, about 3 per 
cent magnesium carbonate and i per cent or a little more of silica, 
alumina and iron oxides. The specific gravity is 2.71 and the 
weight 169 pounds to the cubic foot. Smock states that it absorbs 
0.145 psr cent of Avater. 


The Becraft limestone in the Hudson valley contains beds of 
highly fossiliferous character, with a subcrystalline texture, that 
have been quarried to some extent for decorative material. The 
stone is gray in color, with round and crescentic fragments of crin- 
oids replaced by white calcite. The quarries near the Hudson are 
now producing material for Portland cement, but the George 
Holdridge quarries at Catskill are worked for building and oma- 


mental material according to demand. The stone contains upwards 
of 95 per cent of lime carbonate and is well adapted for building 
stone, lime, cement and furnace flux. 


The lowermost layers of the Lockport dolomite are represented 
by a variegated red and gray material with fossil fragments 2 or 3 
inches long. In polished condition it is quite attractive, but less 
even in texture than the Chazy marble. There has been no pro- 
duction of the stone for ornamental uses reported in recent years ; 
a specimen in the State Museum collections from the quarries of 
D. J. Carpenter indicates a sound material well suited for building 



The Grenville limestones of the Adirondacks not infrequently 
carry more or less serpentine, which results from the alteration of 
anhydrous magnesian silicates of the pyroxene and amphibole 
groups. With abundant, evenly distributed serpentine there results 
a mottled green and white stone that possesses an attractive ap- 
pearance and that has been used for ornamental purposes. A de- 
scription of these marbles has been given by G. P. Merrill.^ 

At Moriah and Port Henry, in Essex county, in this State, there 
has been quarried from time to time under the name- of white 
marble, a peculiar granular stone consisting of an intricate mixture 
of serpentine, dolomite and calcite interspersed with small flakes 
of phlogopite. This stone, which is an altered dolomitic and 
pyroxenic limestone, seems mainly free from the numerous dry 
seams and joints that prove so objectionable in most serpentines, 
and can be obtained in sound blocks of fair size. The serpentinous 
portions are deep green in color, while the calcareous granules are 
faint blue, or whitish, affording a very pleasing contrast. Blocks 
being quarried at the time of my visit (1888) showed, however, a 
very even granular texture of nearly equal parts of serpentine, 
calcite and dolomite in grains of from one-eighth to one-fourth of 
an inch in diameter, forming an aggregate quite granitic in appear- 
ance at a slight distance. The stone polishes well, and is said to 
be durable. In the quarry bed, where the stone had been exposed 
for ages, it was noticed that the calcite had weathered out on the 
surface, leaving the serpentine protruding in small greenish knobs. 
The stone has been quoted in some of the older quarry price lists 
at $6 a cubic foot for the best monumental stock. 

1 Stone for Building and Decoration, 1897, p. 65. 



The principal difficulty in the production of the stone for the 
market has been to secure an even quality, as the serpentine has a 
tendency to gather in bunches and stringers which look like the 
knots in granites. 

Some of the larger occurrences of the serpentinous marble are in 
the vicinity of Port Henry, Essex county. 

The J. E. Reed quarry is 6 miles due west of Port Henry, in the 
town of Moriah, near the precipitous hill known as Broughton ledge. 
The beds are exposed for a vertical distance of 25 feet and in blocks 
up to 5 feet thick. They show a rather uniform mixture of car- 
bonates and serpentines, with here and there a band of pure serpen- 
tine from a few inches to several feet long. The bands are bent and 

Fig. 18 Serpentinous marble, Reed quarry, Port Henry. Enlarged 10 times 

twisted in a most complex way. A small fault cuts through the 
exposure and on the north side of it the stone is more broken. The 
limestone outcrops 200 feet east of the quarry site and also on the 
property of S. A. Foote, one-half of a mile farther east. The 
quarry was last worked about twenty years ago. The product was 
used for monuments, several of which are to be seen in the Port 
Henry cemetery, and to some extent for coping and lintels. When 
exposed long to the weather the serpentine particles are brought in 
relief through the more rapid solution of the carbonates. The stone 
is better adapted for interior decoration than outside work. 


The Treadway quarry lies about a mile north of Port Henry on 
the brook which flows into Lake Champlain at Craig harbor. The 
opening shows lo to 15 feet of the limestone. 

Another quarry is north of the Cheever iron mine along the 
highway on property now owned by the Cheever Iron Ore Co. Two 
pits are to be seen on either side of the road, the one to the east 
exposing 15 feet of rock which shows many streaks of serpentine. 

A quarry was once worked in the town of Thurman, Warren 
county. According to G. P. Merrill ^ the stone contains about equal 
parts of snow-white calcite and light yellowish-green serpentine in 
particles from one-sixteenth to one-fourth of an inch diameter. 
The texture is not very uniform. 

Serpentinous limestones are found in numerous other localities 
in the Adirondack region, notably in the limestone areas in Essex, 
Warren and St Lawrence counties. 

Serpentine unmixed with calcite is exposed over a large area on 
Staten Island. The rock lacks the translucency and rich color 
which are seen in the ornamental varieties, being usually dark 
green to nearly black, and stained by iron oxides. It carries black 
specks of chromite. The serpentine forms the central ridge of hills 
from St George on the north to a little beyond Richmond. On the 
borders the serpentine is mixed more or less with talc and tremolite, 
but in the interior contains little of the silicates, although there may 
be a few undecomposed remnants of pyroxene, olivine and amphibole 
which are the parent minerals of the serpentine. Originally the 
rock seems to have been a nonfeldspathic aggregate that most 
resembles the basic igneous types of the pyroxenite-peridotite 
group.- In most places it is badly fractured, being traversed by 
narrowly spaced joints and showing more or less differential move- 
ment along them, as a result probably of expansion of the mass in 
the alteration. 

Serpentine also outcrops on Davenport's Neck at New Rochelle 
and near Rye, Westchester county. 

An occurrence of serpentine in northern Essex county has been 
the source of much handsome material for museums, but has not 
been worked on a commercial scale. The serpentine occurs along 
the sides of a ravine just west of Port Douglas on the road to 
Keeseville. It is found only within the ravine, as above it is con- 

1 Op. cit. p. 66. 

2 The derivation of the serpentine is discussed by the writer in School 
of Mines Quarterly, v. 22, 1901. 


cealed by beds of Potsdam sandstone. The rock is a compact 
lustrous serpentine of light green color with scattered grains of 
black iron ore and flecks and clouds of the red oxide. The appear- 
ance is quite ornamental and such as to make the serpentine well 
adapted for polished work if sufficiently large pieces were obtain- 
able. In the exposed section the rock is badly broken so that only 
blocks of small size can be secured, but it is quite likely that better 
material would be found deeper in the bank beyond the limits of 
frost action. 



Abrasion of stones, 44 

Absorption of rock, 42 

Adirondacks, basic rocks in, 144; 
crystalline limestone, 182-85 ; east- 
ern, granitic rocks in, 90-92; 
geology, 51 ; western, granitic 
rocks in, 79-82 

Alexandria Bay area, yj 

American Feldspar & Milling Co., 
quarry, 168 

Amphibolite, 15 

Anorthosite, 22, 51, 60-61, 91 ; Au- 
sable Forks, 96; Keeseville, 98-101; 
Split Rock 102 

Ashley quarry, 165 

Ausable Forks, anorthosite area, 96; 
red granite, 97; syenite area, 92- 

Ausable Granite Company, quarry, 


Barrett Manufacturing Company, 
quarry, 164 

Basic rocks in the Adirondacks, 144 

Becker, cited, 17 

Bedford, pegmatite, 171 

Bedford Feldspar Co., quarry, 173 

Beekman quarry, 127 

Beekmantown limestone, 54; perme- 
ability, 42 

Berkey, C. P., cited, 22, 52 

Black River limestone, 55 

Bluestone, 11, 21, 56 

Breakneck ridge, quarries on, 108 

Bullock quarry, 174 

Campbell quarry, 131 
Canton, marble, 192 
Carnes, F. G., quarries, 95 
Catskill limestone quarries, 204 
Cement industry, 9 

Chazy limestone, 54; permeability, 

Chemical composition of rocks, 24, 

Chestertown, pegmatite, :66 
Chicago Granite Company, quarry, 

Clays, 27 

Clements', Charles, quarry, 95 
Clinton shale, 56 
Cobleskill limestone, 56 
Color of rocks, 30-32 
Conglomerates, 27 
Corinth, pegmatite, 168 
Cornell quarry, 119 
Cortlandt basic rocks, 149-50 
Crown Point, pegmatite. 161 
Crown Point Spar Company, quarry, 

Crushing strength, 44 
Crystalline limestone, Highlands, 

193 ; of the Adirondacks, 182-85 
Crystalline silicate rocks, 58-69 
Gushing, H. P. cited, 69, 71 

Dale, T. N., cited, 17, 23, 180 

Dannemora granite area, 102 

De Kalb, pegmatite, 169 

Delesse, M. A., cited, yj 

Denesia property, 170 

Diabase, 63-64, 91 ; Palisades, 151 

Diabase dike, 147 

Diana-Pitcairn syenite, 87-89 

Dickinson, H. T., cited, 8, 21 

Differential parting, 21 

Diorite, 61-62 

Dover Plains, marble, 195 

Dover White Marble Company, 

quarry, 198 
Duell & Holloway quarry, 135 




Eckel, E. C, cited, 8, 122 
Edinburg, pegmatite, 166 
Empire State Granite Company, 

quarries, 99-101 
Examination and testing of stone, 


Faillace quarry, 131 

Faults, 17-19 

Feldspar minerals, 156-57 

Fenano quarry, 136 

Fine, pegmatite, 171 

Fine-Pitcairn granite area, 82-87 

Fire, resistance to, 45 

Flagstone, 9, 21 

Folds, 19-21 

Fordham banded gneiss, 132-37 

Forsythe quarry, ']2, 

Fort Ann, dikes, 149; pegmatite, 165 

Fowler, marble, 192; pegmatite, 170 

Gabbro, 51, 62-63, 82, 91 

Garrison granite boss, 109 

Glens Falls, marbles, 203 

Gloversville, granite, 106 

Gneisses, 15, 64-65, 69 

Gordon quarry, 166 

Gouverneur, quarries near, 191 

Gouverneur marble, 185-88 

Go'uverneur Marble Company, quar- 
ries, 189 

Grain, 22 

Granite, 15, 17, 51, 5S-60, 70, 91 ; 
Alexandria Bay area, "JT, Danne- 
mora, 102; field occurrence, 69; 
Fine-Pitcairn, 82-87 ; Gloversville. 
106; gneissoid. Storm King, 107; 
Grindstone Island, 70; Horicon, 
105; in Orange county, 138; 
Peekskill, 112; Picton Island area, 
74-77; near Ramapo, 138; red, 
Ausable Forks, 97; red, Parish- 
ville, 89; Round Island, iii; St 
Lawrence River, 69-74; White 
Lake, 107; Wilton, 103-05; Yonkers 
gneissoid, 121-30 

Granitic rocks in Eastern Adiron- 
dacks, 90-92; in the Western 
Adirondacks, 79-82; in the High- 
lands section, 107 

Greenfield quarry, 148 
Grindstone Island granite, 70 
Guelph dolomite, 56; permeability, 

Hackett quarry, 126 

Hardness of stones, 42 

Harrison diorite, 130-32 

Harrisville, marble, 193 

Highlands, crystalline limestone, 193; 

granitic rocks, 107 
Hirschwald, J., cited, 38, 39 
Hobby quarry, 174 
Horicon, granite, 105 
Hudson, limestone quarries, 204 
Hudson River formation, 55 
Hudson River slates, 53 

Inwood limestone, 53 
Iron, manufacture, 9 

Joints, 16 

Jones, R. W., acknowledgments to, 8 

iw. PI . 

Keeseville anorthosite area, 98-101 
Kelly quarry, 72 
Kensico quarry, 128-30 

King's quarry, 109 

Kinkel, P. H. & Sons, quarry, 171 

Ladentown trap, 152 

Leopold, J. & Company, quarry, 


Lime, manufacture, 9 

Limestone, 9, 10, 11, 21, 27, 28; chem- 
ical analysis, 24 

Little Falls, crystalline rocks, 145 

Little Falls dolomite, 54 

Little Falls Stone Company, quarry, 

Lockport dolomite, 56, 205 

Lowerre quartzite, 53 

Lowville limestone, 55 

McCourt, W. E., cited, 47 

Manhattan schist, 53, 137-38 
Manlius limestone, 56 



Marbles, general character, 176; ge- 
ology, 181-82 ; in Adirondacks, 182- 
193; mineral constituents, 177; 
nonmetamorphic, 203 ; physical 
properties, 181; texture, 178; 
weathering qualities, 179; in High- 
lands Taconic area, 193-203 

Mayfield, pegmatite, 168 

Medina sandstone, 55, 56; permeabil- 
ity, 42 

Merrill, G. P., cited, 99, 205 

Microscopic examination of rocks, 

Millstone Hill quarry, 119 

Mineral composition, 25 

Mohegan granite, 112 

Mohegan Granite Company, quarries, 
I 13-18 

Moore quarry, 93 

Mount Adam quarries, 139 

Mount Defiance quarry, 165 

Mount Eve quarries, 139 

Natural Bridge, crystalline lime- 
stone, 193 

Natural cement, manufacture, 9 

Newark shales, 57 

Niagara formations, 56 

Niagara limestone, permeability, 42 

Nichols quarry, 135 

Northern New York Marble Com- 
pany, quarries, 190 

Oneida conglomerate, 56 
Onondaga limestone, 56 
Ophicalcite, 205 
Orange county, granite and gneiss in, 

138; Pegmatitic granite in, 143 
Oriskany sandstone, 56 
Ossining, marble, 200 
Oswego sandstone, 55 

Palisades diabase. 151-52 

Parishville red granite, 89 

Parks, cited, 2^^ 42 

Peekskill, magnesian limestone, 199 

Peekskill granite, 112 

Pegmatite, 66-68; local distribution, 

160-75 ; occurrence, 154-60 ; uses 

of, 158 

Penfield Pond, pegmatite, 164 

Perri quarry, 126 

Physical tests of stone, 39 

Picton Island Red Granite Company, 
quarry, 74-77 

Plattsburg, marble, 204 

Pleasantville, marble, 200 

Pochuck Mountain quarries, 141 

Porosity, 41 

Port Richmond, diabase, 153 

Potsdam sandstone, 28, 54; perme- 
ability, 42 

Poughquag quartzite, 53 

Prospect Hill quarries, 98 

Quarry industry, development, 8-1 1 
Quartzites, 15, 27 

Ramapo, Granite near, 138 

Reilly quarry, 134 

Resistance to fire, 45 

Ries, H., cited, 8 

Rift, 22 

Roberts quarry, 120 

Rochester shale, 56 

Rocks, absorption, 42 ; origin and 

classification, 12-24 
Roe's quarry, 163 
Rondout limestone, 56 
Rosiwal. August, cited, 27 
Round Island granite, iii 
Rowland property, 169 
Russo quarry, 127 
Rylestone quarry, 191 

St. Lawrence Company, quarries, 

St Lawrence River granites, 69-74 

Sandstones, 15, 21, 27; chemical an- 
alysis, 24 

Saratoga Trap Rock Company, 
quarry, 148 

Schists, 15, 64-65 

Scott property, 171 

Serpentine, 15, 65 

Serpentinous marbles, 205 

Shales, 15, 27 

Shawangunk mountains, 57 

Smock, John C, cited, 7, 39, 71, 180 

Smyth, C. H. jr, cited, 82, 87, 183 



South Dover Marble Company, quar- 
ries, ig6 

Specific gravity and vireight, 40 

Split Rock anorthosite area, 102 

Storm King gneissoid granite, 107 

Storm King mountain, quarries on, 

Strength of rocks, 32-33 

Strength of stones, 44 

Sufifern trap, 153 

Syenite, 51, 60-61, 82, 91 ; Ausable 
Forks, 92-96; Diana-Pitcairn, 87- 

Syenite Trap Rock Company, quarry, 

Tensile strength, 44 
Testing of stone, 33 
Texture of rocks, 28-30 
Thurso, quarries near, 73 
Ticonderoga, pegmatite, 164 
Toughness of stones, 42 

Trap, 63-64 ; dikes, 82 ; field occur- 
rence, 69; Fort Ann, 149; Laden- 
town, 152 

Trenton limestone, 55 

Tribes Hill limestone, 54 

Tuckahoe, marble, 201 

Turner's Corners, marble, 199 

Tyrell quarry, 168 

Verde antique, 205 

Wappinger limestone, 53 
War of stones, 44 
West Point gneiss quarries, 142 
White, C. B., quarry, loi 
White Lake, granite, 107 
White Plains, marble, 200 
Willsboro Point, limestone, 203 
Wilson Brown quarry, 166 
Wilton, granite, 103-5 
Wingdale, marble, 196 

Yonkers gneiss, 53 

Yonkers gneissoid granite, 121-30 

The University of the State of New York 
New York State Museum 
John M. Clarke, Director 
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• 75 

IS, 2V. 

M^ "" 


*. I ^ 






■ 30 




• IS 






• 25 



21 (Bui 

. 104)$. 25 

22 ( " 






24 ( " 


2S ( " 



26 (" 



27 ( " 



2R r " 



29 ( " 




Reports 2, 8-12 may also be obtained bound in cloth at 250 each in addition to the price 
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Museum bulletins 1887-date. Svo. To advance subscribers, $2 a year, o.r $1 
a year for division (i) geology, economic geology, paleontology, mineralogy; 
50c each for division (2) general zoology, archeology, miscellaneous, (3) botany, 
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Bulletins are grouped in the list on the following pages according to divisions. 
The divisions to which bulletins belong are as follows: 



Economic Geology 




7 Economic Geology 

8 Botany 

9 Zoology 

10 Economic Geology 



13 Entomology 

14 Geology 

15 Economic Geology 

16 Archeology 

17 Economic Geology 

18 Archeology 

19 Geology 

20 Entomology 

21 Geology 

22 Archeology 

23 Entomology 

25 Botany 

26 Entomology 

28 Botany 

29 Zoology 

30 Economic Geoiogy 

31 Entomology 

32 Archeology 

33 Zoology 

34 Geology 

35 Economic Geology 1 

36 Entomology 

38 Zoology 

39 Paleontology 

40 Zoology 

41 Archeology 

42 Geology 

43 Zoology 

44 Economic Geology 

45 Paleontology 

46 Entomology 

47 ^ 

48 Geology 

49 Paleo.-itology 

50 Archeology 

51 Zoology 

52 Paleontology 

53 Entomology 
51 Botany 

55 Archeology 

56 Geology 

57 Entomology 

58 Mineralogy 

59 Entomology 

60 Zoology 

61 Economic Geology 

62 Miscellaneous 122 

63 Geology 123 

64 Entomology 124 
6s Paleontology 125 

66 Miscellaneous 126 

67 Botany 127 

68 Entomology 128 

69 Paleontology 129 

70 Mineralogy 130 

71 Zoology 131 

72 Entomology 132 

73 Archeology 133 

74 Entomology 134 

75 Botany 135 

76 Entomology 136 

77 Geology 137 

78 Archeology 138 

79 Entomology . 139 

80 Paleontology 140 

81 Geology 141 

82 " 142 

83 " 143 

84 " 144 
8s Economic Geology 145 

86 Entomology 146 

87 Archeology i47 

88 Zoology 148 

89 Archeology 149 

90 Paleontology 15° 

91 Zoology IS I 

92 Paleontology 152 

93 Economic Geology , i53 

94 Botany 154 

95 Geology IS5 

96 " 156 

97 Entomology IS7 

98 Mineralogy 158 

99 Paleontology I59 
TOO Economic Geology 160 
loi Paleontology 161 

102 Economic Geology 162 

103 Entomology 163 

104 " 164 
los Botany 165 

106 Geology 166 

107 Geology and Paleontology 167 

108 Archeology 168 

109 Entsmology 169 
no " 170 

111 Geology 171 

112 Economic Geology 172 

113 Archeology 173 

114 GeoloLCy 174 

115 Geology 175 

116 Botany 176 

117 Archeology I77 

118 Gsology 178 

119 Economic Geology i79 

120 " 180 
121 Director's report for 1907 181 


Economic Geology 



Botany ^ 

Economic Geology 

Director's report for 1908 






Director's report for 1909 


Economic Geology 




Director's report for 1910 


Economic Geology 




Director's report for 1911 


Economic Geology 



Director's report for 191 2 


Economic Geology 



Director's report for 1913 

Economic Geology 



Director's rsport for 1914 

Economic Geology 



Economic Geology 


Bulletins are also found with the annual reports of the museum as follows: 






; Report 




48, V. 1 


57. V. I, pt 2 

1 1 9-2 1 

61, V. I 


64. V. 2 


SO, V. I 


57, V. I, pt I 


61, V. 2 


6S, V, 2 


51. V. I 


S8, V. 3 


61, V. I 


6s, V. 2 


52, V. I 


S8, V. I 


6 1 , V. 2 


6s, V. 2 


53. V. I 


58, V. 2 


62, V. 3 


6s, V. I 


54. V. I 


58, V. s 


62, V. I 


6S, V. I 


54. V. 2 


58, V. 4 


62, V. 2 


6S. V. I 


54. V. 3 


58, V. 3 


62, V. 3 


6s, V. 2 


54. V. 4 


S8. V. 4 

131. 132 

62, V. 2 


6S, V. I 


55. V. I 


58. V. 3 


62, V. I 


66, V. 2 


56, V. 4 


58, V. 2 


62, V. 2 


66, V. I 


56, V. 1 


58, V. 4 


63, V. I 


66, V. 2 


S6, V. 3 


58, V. I 


63, V. 2 


66, V. I 


56, V. I 


58, V. s 


63. V. I 


56, V. 3 


59, V. 2 


63. V. 1 



56, V. I 


59, V. I 


63. V. 2 


49, V. 3 


S6, V. 4 


59. V. 2 


63. "V. I 


S3, V. 2 


56, V. 2 


59, V. I 


63, V. 2 


57, V. 3 


S6. V. 3 


59, V. 2 


63, V. 2 


5 7. V. 4 


56. V. 2 


59. V. I 


63, V. 2 

8, pt I 

59. V. 3 


56, V. 4 


60, V. 2 


64, V. 2 

8. pt 2 

59, V. 4 


56, V. 3 


60, V. 3 


64, V. I 

9, pt I 

60, V. 4 


56, V. 2 

109, IIO 

60, V. I 


64, V. I 

9, pt 2 

62, V. 4 


57. V. I, 

pt I 


60, V. 2 


64, V. 2 


60, V. 5 


57, V. I, 

pt 2 


60, V. I 


64, V. 2 


61, V. 3 


57, V. 2 


60, V. 3 


64, V. I 

12, pt I 

6^, V. 3 


57. V. I, 

pt 2 


60, V. I 


64, V. 2 

12, pt 2 

66, V. 3 


57. V. 2 


60, V. 2 


64, V. 2 


63, V. 4 


57, V. I, 

pt 2 


60, V. I 


64, V. 2 

14, V. I 

65, V. 3 


57, V. I 

pt I 


60, V. 3 


64, V. 2 

14. V. 2 

65, V. 4 


57, V. 2 


60, V. I 

The figures at the beginning cf ^ach entry in the following list indicate its number as a 
museum bulletin. 

Geology and Paleontology. 14 Kemp, J. F. Geology of Moriah and West- 
port Townships, Essex Co., N. Y., with notes on the iron mines. 38p, 
il. 7pl. 2 maps. Sept. 1895. Free. 

19 Merrill, F. J. H. Guide to the Study of the Geological Collections of 
the New York State Museum. i64p. iigpl. map. Nov. 1898. Out of print. 

21 Kemp, J. F. Geology of the Lake Placid Region. 24p. ipl. map. Sept, 
1898. Free. 

34 Cumings, E. R. Lower Silurian System of Eastern Montgomery County; 
Prosser, C. S. Notes on the Stratigraphy of Mohawk Valley and Sara- 
toga County, N. Y. 74p. i4pl. map. May 1900. 15c. 

39 Clarke, J. M.; Simpson, G. B. & Loomis, F. P. Paleontologic Papers i. 
72p. il. i6pl. Oct. 1900. ISC. 

Contents: Clarke, J. M. A Remarkable Occurrence of Orthoceras in the Oneonta Beds of 

the Chenango Valley, N. Y. 
Paropsonema cryptophya; a Peculiar Echinoderm from the Intumescens-zone 

(Portage Beds) of Western New York. 

Dictyonine Hexactinellid Sponges from the Upper Devonic of New York. 

The Water Biscuit of Squaw Island, Canandaigua Lake, N. Y. 

Simpson, G. B. Preliminary Descriptions of New Genera of Paleozoic Rugose Corals. 
Loomis, F. B. Siluric Fungi from Western New York. 

42 Ruedemann, Rudolf. Hudson River Beds near Albany and their Taxo- 
nomic Equivalents. ii6p. 2pl. map. Apr. 1901. 25c. 

45 Grabau, A. W. Geology and Paleontology of Niagara Falls and Vicinity. 
286p. il. i8pl. map. Apr. 1901. 65c; cloth, 90c. 

48 Woodworth, J. B. Pleistocene Geology of Nassau County and Borough 
of Queens. 58p. il. 8pl. map. Dec. 1901. 25c. 

49 Ruedemann, Rudolf; Clarke, J. M. & Wood, Elvira. Paleontologic 
Papers 2. 24op. i3pl. Dec. 1901. Out of print. 

Contents: Ruedemann, Rudolf. Trenton Conglomerate of Rysedorph Hill. 

Clarke, J. M. Limestones of Central and Western New York Interbedded with Bitumi- 
nous Shales of the Marcellus Stage. 

Wood, Elvira. Marcellus Limestones of Lancaster, Erie Co., N. Y. 

Clarke, J. M. New Agelacrinites. 

Value of Amnigenia as an Indicator of Fresh-water Deposits durinc the Devonic of 

New York, Ireland and the Rhineland. 

52 Clarke, J. M. Report of the State Paleontologist 1901. 28op. il. lopl. 
map, I tab. July 1902. 40c. 


56 Merrill, F. J. H. Description of the State Geologic Map of 1901. 42?. 

2 maps, tab. Nov. 1902. Free. 
63 Clarke. J. M. & Luther, D. D. Stratigraphy of Cananadigua and Naples 

Quadrangles. ySp. map. June 1904. 25c. 
65 Clarke J- M. Catalogue of Type Specimens of Paleozoic Fossils in the 

New York State Museum. 848p.' May 1903. $1.20 cloth. 
69 Report of the State Paleontologist 1902. 464P. 52pl. 7 maps. Nov. 

1903. $1, doth. 
77 Gushing, H. P. Geology of the Vicinity of Little Falls, Herkimer Co. 

98p. il. i5pl. 2 maps. Jan. 1905. 30c. 

80 Clarke, J. M. Report of the State Paleontologist 1903. 396p. 29pl. 
2 maps. Feb. 1905. 85c, cloth. 

81 Clarke, J. M. & Luther, D. D. Watkins and Elmira Quadrangles. 32P. 
map. Mar. 1905. 25c. 

82 Geologic Map of the TuUj^ Quadrangle. 4op. map. Apr. 1905. 20c. 

83 Woodworth, J. B. Pleistocene Geology of the Mooers Quadrangle. 62p. 
25pl. map. June 1905. 25c 

84 Ancient Water Levels of the Champlain and Hudson Valleys. 2o6p. 

il. iipl. 18 maps. July 1905. 45c. 

90 Ruedemann, Rudolf. Cephalopoda of Beekmantown and Ohazy For- 
mations of Champlain Basin. 224P. il. 38pl. May 1906. 75c, cloth. 

92 Grabau, A. W. Guide to the Geology and Paleontology of the Schoharie 
Region. 314P. il. 26pl. map. Apr. 1906. 75c, cloth. 

95 Gushing, H. P. Geology of the Northern Adirondack Region. i88p. 
i5pl. 3 maps. Sept. 1905. 30c. 

96 Ogilvie, L H. Geolog}' of the Paradox Lake Quadrangle. 54p. il. i7pl. 
map. Dec. 1905. 30c, 

99 Luther, D. D. Geology of the Buffalo Quadrangle. 32p. map. May 

1906. 20c. 

loi Geology of the Penn Yan-Hammondsport Quadrangles. 2 8p. 

map. July 1906. Out of print. 

106 Fairchild, H. L. Glacial Waters in the Erie Basin. 88p. i4ph 9 maps. 
Feb. 1907. Out of print. 

107 Woodworth, J- B.; Hartnagel, C. A.; Whitlock, H. P.; Hudson, G. H. ; 
Clarke, J. M.; White, David & Berkey, C. P. Geological Papers. 388P. 
54pl. map. May 1907. 90c, cloth. 

Contents: Woodworth, J. B. Postglacial Faults of Eastern New York. 

Hartnagel, C. A. Stratigraphic Relations of the Oneida Conglomerate. 

— ■ — • Upper Siluric and Lower Devonic Formations of the Skunnemunk Mountain Region. 

Whitlock, H. P. Minerals from Lyon Mountain, Clinton Co. 

Hudson, G. H. On Some Pelmatozoa from the Chazy Limestone of New York. 

Clarke, J. M. Some New Devonic Fossils. 

— ■ — ■ An Interesting Style of Sand-filled Vein. 

Eurypterus Shales of the Shawangunk Mountains in Eastern New York. 

White, David. .\ Remarkable Fossil Tree Trunk from the Middle Devonic of New York. 
Berkey, C. P. Str nural and Stratigraphic Features of the Basal Gneisses of the High- 
lands. ^ H 

III Fairchild, H. L. Drumlins of New York. 6op. 28pl. 19 maps. July 

1907. Out of print. 

114 Hartnagel, C. A. Geologic Map of the Rochester and Ontario Beach 
Quadrangles. 36p. map. Aug. 1907. 20c. 

115 Cushing, H. P. Geology of the Long Lake Quadrangle. 88p. 2opU 
map. Sept. 1907. 25c. 

118 Clarke, J. M. & Luther, D. D. Geologic Maps and Descriptions of the 
Portage and Nunda Quadrangles including a map of Letchworth Park. 
sop. i6pl. 4 maps. Jan. 1908. 35c. 

126 Miller, W. J. Geology of the Remsen Quadrangle. 54P- ih upL map. 
Jan. 1909. 25c. 

127 Fairchild, H. L. Glacial Waters in Central New York. 64p. 2 7pl. 15 
maps. Mar. 1909. Out of print. 

£28 Luther, D. D. Geology of the Geneva-Ovid Quadrangles. 44p. map. 

Apr. 1909. 20c. 
135 Miller, W. J. Geology of the Port Leyden Quadrangle, Lewis County, 

N. Y. 62p. il. iipl. map. Jan. 1910. 25c. 


137 Luther, D. D. Geology of the Auburn-Genoa Quadrangles. 36p. map. 
Mar. 1910. 20c. 

138 Kemp. J. F. & Ruedemann, Rudolf. Geology of the Elizabethtown 
and Port Henry Quadrangles. i76p. il. 2opl. 3 maps. Apr. 1910. Not 

145 Gushing, H. P.; Fairchild, H. L.; Ruedemann, Rudolf & Smyth, C. H. 
Geology of the Thousand Islands Region. 194P. il. 62pl. 6 maps. Dec. 
1 910. Si. 00 cloth. 

146 Berkey, C. P. Geologic Features and Problems of the New York City 
(Catskili) Aqueduct. 286p. il. 38pl. maps. Feb. 1911. 75c; cloth, $1. 

148 Gordon, C. E. Geology of the Poughkeepsie Quadrangle. 12 2p. il. 
26pl. map. Apr. 1911. 30c. 

152 Luther, D. D. Geology of the Honeoye-Wayland Quadrangles. 3op. 
map. Oct. 191 1. 200. 

153 Miller, William J. Geolog}^ of the Broadalbin Quadrangle, Fulton- 
Saratoga Counties, New York. 66p. il. 8 pi. map. Dec. 191 1. 25c. 

154 Stoller, James H. Glacial Geology of the Schenectady Quadrangle. 44p. 

9 pi. map. Dec. 191 1. 20c. 

159 Kemp, James F. The Mineral Springs of Saratoga. Sop. il. 3pl. Apr. 
1912. 15c. 

160 Fairchild, H. L. Glacial Waters in the Black and Mohawk Valleys. 48p. 
il. 8pl. 14 maps. May 19 12. 50c. 

162 Ruedemann, Rudolf. The Lower Siluric Shales of the Mohawk Valley. 
I52p. il. i5pl. Aug. 1912. 35c. 

168 Miller, William J. Geological History of New York State. I30p. 43pl. 

10 maps. Dec. 1913. 40c. 

169 Gushing, H. P. & Ruedemann, Rudolf. Geology of Saratoga Springs and 
Vicinity. I78p. il. 20 pi. map. Feb. 1914. 40c. 

170 Miller, WiUiam J. Geology of the North Creek Quadrangle, gop. il. I4pl. 
Feb. 1914. 25c. 

171 Hopkins, T. C. The Geology of the Syracuse Quadrangle. Sop. il. 20pl. 
map. July 1914. 25c. 

172 Luther, D. D. Geology of the Attica and Depew Quadrangles. 32p. map. 
August 1914. 15c. 

Miller, William J. The Geology of the Lake Pleasant Quadrangle. In press. 

StoUer, James H. Glacial Geology of the Saratoga Quadrangle. In press. 

Miller, William J. Geology of the Blue Mountain Quadrangle. Prepared. 

Martin, James C. & Chadwick, George H. Geology of the Canton Quad- 
rangle. Prepared. 

Luther, D. D. Geology of the Phelps Quadrangle. In preparation. 

Whitnall, H. O. Geology of the Morrisville Quadrangle. Prepared. 

Hudson, G. H. Geology of Valcour Island. In preparation. 

Economic Geology. 3 Smock, J. C. Building Stone in the State of New 
York. i54p. Mar. 1888. Out of print. 

7 — First Report on the Iron Mines and Iron Ore Districts in the State 

of New York. ySp. map. June 1889. Out of print. 

ID Building Stone in New York. 2iop. map, tab. Sept. 1890. Not 

available . 

11 Merrill, F. J. H. Salt and Gypsum Industries of New York. 94p. lapl. 
2 maps, II tab. Apr. 1893. Not available. 

12 Ries, Heinrich. Clay Industries of New York. 174P. il. ipl. map. Mar. 
1895. 30c. 

15 Merrill, F. J. H. Mineral Resources of New York. 240P. a maps. 

Sept. 1895. [50c] 
17 Road Materials and Road Building in New York. 52p. i4pl. 

2 maps. Oct. 1897. 15c. 

30 Orton, Edward. Petroleum and Natural Gas in New York. 13 6p. il. 

3 maps. Nov. 1899. 15c. 

35 Ries, Heinrich. Clays of New York; their Properties and Uses. 4S6p. 

i4opl. map. June 1900. Out of print. ^ 
44 Lime and Cement Industries of New York; Eckel, E. C. Chapters 

on the Cement Industry. 332P. loipl. 2 maps. Dec. 1901. 850^ cloth ^ 


6 1 Dickinson, H. T. Quarries of Bluestone and Other Sandstones in New 

York. ii4p. i8pl. 2 maps. Mar. 1903. 35c. 
85 Rafter, G. W. Hydrology of New York State. 902p. il. 44pl. 5 maps. 

May 1905. $1.50, cloth. 
93 Newland, D. H. Mining and Quarry Industry of New York. ySp, 

July 1905. Out of print. 
100 McCourt, W. E. Fire Tests of Some New York Building Stones. 4op. 

26pl. Feb. 1906. 15c. 
102 Newland, D. H. Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1905. 

i62p. June 1906. 25c. 
112 — — Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1906. 82p. July 

1907. Out of print. 

119 & Kemp, J. F. Geology of the Adirondack Magnetic Iron Ores 

with a Report on the Mineville-Port Henry Mine Group. iS4p. i4pl. 
8 maps. Apr. 1908. 35c. 

120 Newland, D. H. Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1907. 82p. 
July 1908. 15c. 

123 & Hartnagel, C. A. Iron Ores of the Clinton Formation in New 

York State. 76p. il. i4pl. 3 maps. Nov. 1908. 25c. 
132 Newland, D. H. Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1908. gSp. 

July 1909. 15c. 
i;2 Mining and Quarry Industry of New York for 1909. 98p. Aug. 

1 9 1 o . Not available. 

143 Gypsum Deposits of New York. 94p. 2opl. 4 maps. Oct. 1910 356. 

151 Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1910. 82p. June 191 1. 15c. 

161 MiningandQuarry Industry of New York 191 1. Ii4p. July 1912. 20c. 

166 Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1912. Ii4p. August 1913. 

174 Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1913. in p. Dec. 1914. 

178 — — Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1914. 88p. Nov. 1915. 15c. 

181 The Quarry Materials of New York. 2i2p. 34 pi. Jan. 1916. 40c. 

Mineralogy. 4 Nason, F. L. Some New York Minerals and Their Localities. 

2 2p. ipl. Aug. 1888. Free. 
58 Whitlock, H. P. Guide to the Mineralogic Collections of the New York 

State Museum, isop. il. 39pl. n models. Sept. 1902. 40c. 

70 New York Mineral Localities, nop. Oct. 1903. 20c. 

98 Contributions from the Mineralogic Laboratory. 38p. 7pl. Dec. 

1905. 0^^t of print. 
Zoology. I Marshall, W. B. Preliminary List of New York Unionidae. 

2op. Mar. 1892. Not available. 
9 Beaks of Unionidae Inhabiting the Vicinity of Albany, N. Y. 3op. 

I pi. Aug. 1890, Free. 
29 Miller, G. S., jr. Preliminary List of New York 3Iammals. 124P. Oct. 

1899. 15c. 
33 Farr, M. S. Check List of New York Birds. 224P. Apr. 1900. 25c. 
38 Miller, G. S., jr. Key to the Land Mammals of Northeastern North 

America. io6p. Oct. 1900. 15c. 
40 Simpson, G. B. Anatomy and Physiology of Polygyra albolabris and 

Limax maximus and Embryology of Limax maximus. 82p. 28pl. Oct. 

1901. 25c. 
43 Kellogg, J. L. Clam and Scallop Industries of New York. 36p. 2pl. 

map. Apr. 1901. Free. 
51 Eckel, E. C. &■ Paulmier, F. C. Catalogue of Reptiles and Batrachians 

of New York. 64p. il. ipl. Apr. 1902. Out of print. 

Eckel, E. C. Serpents of Northeastern United States. 

Paulmier, F. C. Lizards, Tortoises and Batrachians of New York. 

60 Bean, T. H. Catalogue of the Fishes of New York. 784P. Feb. 1903- 
$1, cloth. 


71 Kellogg, J. L. Feeding Habits and Growth of Venus mercenaria. 3op. 
4pl. Sept. 1903. Free. 

88 Letson, Elizabeth J. Check List of the MoUusca of New York. ii6p. 

May 1905. 20c. 
91 Paulmier, F. C. Higher Crustacea of New York City. ySp. il. June 

1905. 20c. 
130 Shufeldt, R. W. Osteology of Birds. 382P. il. 26pl. May 1909. 50c. 
Entomology. 5 Lintner, J. A. White Grub of the May Beetle. 34p. il. 

Nov. 1888. Free. 

6 Cut-worms. 38p. il. Nov. 1888. Free. 

13 San Jos6 Scale and Some Destructive Insects of New York State. 

54p. 7pl. Apr. 1895. 15c. 
20 Felt, E. P. Elm Leaf Beetle in New York State. 46p. il. 5pl. June 

i8g8. Free. - 3 ..! 

r^ee 57.1 

23 14th Report of the State Entomologist 1898. isop. il. gpl. Dec. 

1898. 20C. 

24 Memorial of the Life and Entomologic Work of J. A. Lintner Ph.D. 

State Entomologist 1874-98; Index to Entomologist's Reports 1-13. 3i6p. 
ipl. Oct. 1899. 35c. 
Supplement to 14th report of the State Entomologist. 

26 Collection, Preservation and Distribution .of New York Insects. 

36p. il. Apr. 1899. Out of print. 

27 Shade Tree Pests in New York State. 26p. il. 5pl. May 1899. 


31 15th Report of the State Entomologist 1899. i28p. June 1900. 

30 1 6th Report of the State Entomologist 1900. ii8p. i6pl. Mar. 

1901. 25c. 
37 Catalogue of Some of the More Important Injurious and Beneficial 

Insects of New York State. 54p. il. Sept. 1900. Free. 

46 Scale Insects of Importance and a List of the Species in New York 

State. 94p. il. iSpl. June 1901. 25c. 

47 Needham, J. G. & Betten, Cornelius. Aquatic Insects in the Adiron- 
dacks. 234p. il. 36pl. Sept. 1901. 45c. 

S3 Felt, E. P. 17th Report of the State Entomologist 1901. 232P. il. 6pl. 

Aug. 1902. Out of print. 
57 Elm Leaf Beetle in New York State. 46p. il. 8pl. Aug. 1902. 

Out of print. 

This is a revision of Bulletin 20 containing the more essential facts observed since that 
was prepared. 

59 Grapevine Root Worm. 4op. 6pl. Dec. 1902. Not available. 

See 72. 
64 i8th Report of the State Entomologist 1902. nop. 6pl. May 

1903. 20c. 

68 Needham, J. G. & others. Aquatic Insects in New York. 322P. 52pl. 
Aug. 1903. 80c, cloth. 

72 Felt, E. P. Grapevine Root Worm. 58p. i3pl. Nov. 1903. 20c. 

This is a revision of Bulletin 59 containing the more essential facts observed since that 
was prepared. 

74 & Joutel, L. H. Monograph of the Genus Saperda. 88p. i4pl 

June 1904. 25c. 
76 Felt, E. P. 19th Report of the State Entomologist 1903. iSop. 4pl 

1904. ISC. 

79 Mosquitos or Culicidae of New York. i64p. il. 57pl. tab. Oct 

1904. 40c. 
86 Needham, J. G. & others. May Flies and Midges of New York. 3S2p 

il. 37pl. June 1905. Out of print. 
97 Felt, E. P. 20th Report of the State Entomologist 1904. 246P. il. igpl 

Nov. 1905. 40c. 
103 Gipsv and Brown Tail Moths. 44p. lopl. July 1906. 15c. 


104 2ist Report of the State Entomologist 1905. i44p. lopl. Aug. 

1906. 25c. 

109 Tussock Moth and Elm Leaf Beetle. 34p. 8pl. Mar. 1907. 20c. 

no 22d Report of the State Entomologist 1906. i52p. 3pl. June 

1907. 25c. 

124 23d Report of the State Entomologist 1907. 542p. il. 44pl. Oct. 

1908. 75c. 

129 Control of Household Insects. 48p. il. May 1909. Out of print. 

134 24th Report of the State Entomologist 1908. 2o8p. il. i7pl. 

Sept. 1909. 35c. 
136 Control of Flies and Other Household Insects. 56p. il. Feb. 

1910. 15c. 

This is a revision of Bulletin 129 containing the more essential facts observed since 
that was prepared. 

141 Felt, E. P. 25th Report of the State Entomologist 1909. T78p. il. 22pl. 

July 1 9 10. Not available. 
147 26th Report of the State Entomologist 1910. i82p. il 35pl. Mar. 

1911. 35c. 

155 27th Report of the State Entomologist 191 1. I98p. il. 27pl. Jan. 

1912. 40c. 

156 Elm Leaf Beetle and White-Marked Tussock Moth. 35p. 8pl. Jan. 

1912. 20c. 

165 28th Report of the State Entomologist 1912. 266p. I4pl. July 1913. 


175 29th Report of the State Entomologist 1913. 258 p. 16 pi. April 

1915- 45c. 

180 30th Report of the State Entomologist 1914. 336p. 19 pi. Jan. 1916. 

Needham, J. G. Monograph on Stone Flies. In preparation. 
Botany. 2 Peck, C. H. Contributions to the Botany of the State of New 

York. 72p. 2pl. May 1887. Free. 

8 Boleti of the United States. 98p. Sept. 1889. Out of print. 

25 Report of the State Botanist 1898. 76p. 5pl. Oct. 1899. Out of 


28 Plants of North Elba. 2o6p. map. June 1899. 20c. 

54 Report of the State Botanist 1901. 58p. 7pl. Nov. 1902. 40c. 

67 Report of the State Botanist 1902. 196P. 5pl. May 1903. 50c. 

75 Report of the State Botanist 1903. 7op. 4pl. 1904. 40c. 

94 Report of the State Botanist 1904. 6op. lopl. July 1905. 40c. 

105 Report of the State Botanist 1905. io8p. i2pl. Aug. 1906. 50c. 

116 Report of the State Botanist 1906. i2op. 6pl. July 1907. 35c. 

122 Report of the State Botanist 1907. i78p. spl. Aug. 1908. 40c. 

131 Report of the State Botanist 1908. 202p. 4pl. July 1909. 40c. 

139 Report of the State Botanist 1909. ii6p. lopl. May 1910. 450. 

150 Report of the State Botanist 1910. loop. 5pl. May 1911. 30c. 

157 Report of the State Botanist 191 1. I40p. 9pl. Mar. 19 12. 35c. 

167 Report of the State Botanist 1912. i38p. Sept. 1913. 30c. 

176 Report of the State Botanist 1913. 78p. i7pl. June 1915. 20c. 

179 Report of the State Botanist 1914. io8p. ipl. Dec. 1915. 20c. 

Archeology. 16 Beauchamp, W. M. Aboriginal Chipped Stone Implements 

of New York. 86p. 23pl. Oct. 1897. Not available. 
18 Polished Stone Articles Used by the New York Aborigines. io4p. 

35pl. Nov. 1897. 25c. 
22 Earthenware of the New York Aborigines. 78p. 33pl. Oct. 1898. 

32 Aboriginal Occupation of New York. 190P. i6pl. 2 maps. Mar. 

1900. 30c. 
41 Wampum and Shell Articles Used by New York Indians. i66p. 

28pl. Mar. 1901. Out of print. 
50 Horn and Bone Implements of the New York Indians. ii2p. 43pl. 

Mar. 1902. Out of print. 


55 Metallic Implements of the New York Indians. 94p. 38pl. June 

1902. 25c. 

73 Metallic Ornaments of the New York Indians. i2 2p. 37pl. Dec. 

1903. Not available. 

78 History of the New York Iroquois. 34op. lypl. map. Feb. 1905. 


87 Perch Lake Mounds. 84p. i2pl. Apr. 1905. 20c. 

89 Aboriginal Use of Wood in New York. igop. 35pl. June 1905. 

Not available. 

108 Aboriginal Place Names of New York. 336p. May 1907. 40c. 

113 Civil, Religious and Mourning Councils and Ceremonies of Adop- 
tion. ii8p. 7pl. June 1907. 25c. 
117 Parker, A. C. An JErie Indian Village and Burial Site. io2p. 38pl. 

Dec. 1907. 30c. 
125 Converse, H. M. & Parker, A. C. Iroquois Myths and Legends. 196P. 

il. iipl. Dec. 1908. 50c. 
144 Parker, A. C. Iroquois Uses of Maize and Other Food Plants. i2op. 

il. 3ipl. Nov. 1910. Not available. 

163 The Code of Handsome Lake. I44p. 23pl. Nov. 19 12. Not available. 

The Constitution of the Five Nations. In press. 

Miscellaneous. 62 Merrill, F. J. H. Directory of Natural History Museums 

in United States and Canada. 236P. Apr. 1903. 30c. 
66 Ellis, Mary. Index to Publications of the New York State Natural 

History Survey and New York State Museum 183 7-1 90 2. 4i8p. June 

^903- 75c, cloth. 
Museum memoirs 1889-date. 4to. 

1 Beecher, C. E. & Clarke, J. M. Development of Some Silurian Brachi- 
opoda. 96p. 8pl. Oct. 1889. $1. 

2 Hall, James & Clarke, J. M. Paleozoic Reticulate Sponges. 3 Sop. il. 7opl. 
1898. $2, cloth. 

3 Clarke, J. M. The Oriskany Fauna of Becraft Mountain, Columbia Co., 
N. Y. i28p. 9pl. Oct. 1900. 80c. 

4 Peck, C. H. N. Y. Edible Fungi, 1895-99. io6p. 25pl. Nov. 1900. Not 

■ i-This includes revised descriptions and illustrations of fungi reported in the 49th, sist and 
S2d reports of the State Botanist. 

5 Clarke, J. M. & Ruedemann, Rudolf. Guelph Formation and Fauna of 
New York State. 196P. 2ipl. July 1903. $1.50, cloth. 

6 Clarke, J. M. Naples Fauna in Western New York. 268p. 26pl. map. 

1904. $2, cloth. 

7 Ruedemann, Rudolf. Graptolites of New York. Pt i Graptolites of the 
Lower Beds. 35op. i7pl. Feb. 1905. $1.50, cloth. 

8 Felt, E. P. Insects Affecting Park and Woodland Trees, v.i. 46op. 
il. 48pl. Feb. 1906. $2. $0, cloth; v. 2. Feb. 1907. $2, cloth. 

9 Clarke, J. M. Early Devonic of New York and Eastern North America. 
Pt I. 366p. il. 7opl. 5 maps. Mar. 1908. $2.50, cloth; Pt 2. 250P. il. 36pl. 
4 maps. Sept. 1909. $2, cloth. 

ID Eastman, C. R. The Devonic Fishes of the New York Formations. 
236P. i5pl. 1907. $1.25, cloth. 

11 Ruedemann, Rudolf. Graptolites of New York. Pt 2 Graptolites of 
i 'the Higher Beds. 584P. il. 3ipl. 2 tab. Apr. 1908. $2.50, cloth. 

12 Eaton, E. H. Birds of New York. v. i. 5oip. il. 42pl. Apr. 1910. 
$3, cloth; V. 2, 7l9p. il. 64 pi. July 1914. $4, cloth. 

13 Whitlock, H.P. Calcitesof NewYoric. 190P. il. 27pl. Oct. 1910. $1, cloth. 

14 Clarke, J. M. & Ruedemann, Rudolf. The Eurypterida of New York. v. i. 
Text. 44op. il. v. 2 Plates. i88p. 88pl. Dec. 191 2. $4, cloth. 

Natural History of New York. 30V. il. pi. maps. 4to. Albany 1842-94. 

DIVISION I ZOOLOGY. De Kay, James E. Zoology of New York; or. The 
New York Fauna; comprising detailed descriptions of all the animals 
hitherto observed within the State of New York with brief notices Of 
those occasionally found near its borders, and accompanied by appropri. 
ate illustrations. 5v. il. pi. maps. sq. 4to. Albany 1842-44. Out of print ^ 
Historical introduction to the series by Gov. W. H. Seward. 178P. 


V. I pti Mammalia. 131 + 46p. 33pl. 1842. 

300 copies with hand-colored plates, 
V. 2 pt2 Birds. 12 + sSop. i4ipl. 1844. 

Colored plates. 

V. 3 pt3 Reptiles and Amphibia. 7 + 98p. pt 4 Fishes. 15 + 4iSp. 1842. 

pt 3-4 bound together. 

V. 4 Plates to accompany v. 3. Reptiles and Amphibia. 23pl. Fishes. 
79pl. 1842. 

300 copies with hand-colored plates. 

V. 5 pt5 MoUusca. 4 + 271P. 4opl. pt 6 Crustacea. 7op. i3pl. 1843-44. 

Hand-colored plates; ptS-6 bound together. 

DIVISION 2 BOTANY. Torrcy, John. Flora of the State of New York ; com- 
prising full descriptions of all the indigenous and naturalized plants hith- 
erto discovered in the State, with remarks on their economical and medical 
properties. 2V. il. pi. sq. 4to. Albany 1843. Out of print. 

V. I Flora of the State of New York. 12 + 484P. 72pl. 1843. 

300 copies with hand-colored plates. 
V. 2 Flora of the State of New York. 5 72p. 89PI. 1843. 
300 copies with hand-colored plates. 

DIVISION 3 MINERALOGY. Beck, Lewis C. Mineralogy of New York; com- 
prising detailed descriptions of the minerals hitherto found in the State 
of New York, and notices of their uses in the arts and agriculture, il. pi. 
sq. 4to. Albany 1842. Out of print. 

V. I pti Economical Mineralogy. pt2 Descriptive Mineralogy. ^24 -f- 536p. 

8 plates additional to those printed as part of the text. 

DIVISION 4 GEOLOGY. Mather, W. W. ; Emmons, Ebenezer; Vanuxem, Lard- 
ner & Hall, James. Geology of New York. 4V. il. pi. sq. 4to. Albany 
1842-43. Out of print. 

V. I pti Mather, W. W. First Geological District. 37 4- 653P. 46pl. 1843. 

V. 2 pt2 Emmons, Ebenezer. Second Geological District. 10 -I- 43 7p. 
i7pl. 1842. 

V. 3 pt3 Vanuxem, Lardner. Third Geological District. 3o6p. 1842. 

V 4 pt4 Hall, James. Fourth Geological District. 22 -f 683P. iQpl. 
map. 1843. 

DIVISION 5 AGRICULTURE. Emmons, Ebenezer. Agriculture of New York ; 
comprising an account of the classification, composition and distribution 
of the soils and rocks and the natural waters of the different geological 
formations, together with a condensed view of the meteorology and agri- 
cultural productions of the State. 5V. il. pi. sq. 4to. Albany 1846-54. 
Out of print. 

V. I Soils of the State, Their Composition and Distribution. 11 -1- 371P. 2ipl. 

V. 2 Analysis of Soils, Plants, Cereals, etc. 8 4- 343 + 46p. 42pl. 1849. 

With hand-colored plates. 
V. 3 Fruits, etc. 8 -f- 34op. 1851. 
V. 4 Plates to accompany v. 3. 9Spl. 1851. 


V. 5 Insects Injurious to Agriculture. 8 -f 272P. 5opl. 1854. 

With hand-colored plates. 

DIVISION 6 PALEONTOLOGY. Hall, James. Paleontology of New York. 8v, 

il. pi. sq. 4to. Albany 1847-94. Bound in cloth. 
v. I Organic Remains of the Lower Division of the New York System. 

23 + 338p. 99pl. 1847. Out of print. 
V. 2 Organic Remains of Lower Middle Division of the New York System. 

8 + 362P. ro4pl. 1852. Out of print. 
v. 3 Organic Remains of the Lower Helderberg Group and the Oriskany 

Sandstone, pt i, text. 12 + 532P. 1859. [$3.50"' 
pt 2. i42pl. 1861. [$2.50] 


V. 4 Fossil Brachiopoda of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, Portage and 
Chemung Groups, ii + i + 428p. 69pl. 1867. $2.50. 

V. 5 pt I I/amellibranchiata i. Monomyaria of the Upper Helderberg, 
Hamilton and Chemung Groups. 18 + 268p. 45pl. 1884. $2.50. 

Lainellibranchiata 2. Dimyaria of the Upper Helderberg, Ham- 
ilton, Portage and Chemung Groups. 62 + 293P. 5ipl. 1885. $2.50. 

pt 2 Gasteropoda, Pteropoda and Cephalopoda of the Upper Helder- 
berg, Hamilton, Portage and Chemung Groups. 2V. 1879. v. i, text. 
15 + 492P.; V.2. i2opl. $2.50 for 2 V. 

& Simpson, George B. v. 6 Corals and Bryozoa of the Lower and Up- 
per Helderberg and Hamilton Groups. 24 + 298P. 67pl. 1887. $2.50. 

& Clarke, John M. v. 7 Trilobites and Other Crustacea of the Oris- 

kany, Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, Portage, Chemung and Catskill 
Groups. 64 + 236P. 46pl. 1888. Cont. supplement to V. 5, pt 2. Ptero- 
poda, Cephalopoda and Annelida. 42p. i8pl. 1888. $2.50. 

& Clarke, John M. v. 8 pt i Introduction to the Study of the Genera 

of the Paleozoic Brachiopoda. 16 + 367P. 44pl. 1892. $2.50. 

& Clarke, John M. v. 8 pt 2 Paleozoic P^achiopoda. 16 + 394p. 64pl. 

1894. $2.50. ^^ 

Catalogue of the Cabinet of Natural History of the State of New York and 
of the Historical and Antiquarian Collection annexed thereto. 242P. 8vo. 
1853. Out of print. 

Handbooks 1893-date. 

New York State Museum. 52p. il. 1902. Free. 

Outlines, history and work of the museum'with list of staff 1902. 

Paleontology. ,^i2p.^''\i899. (Jui oj pnni. 

^ I Brief outline of State Museum work in paleontology under heads: Definition; Relation to 
biology; Relation to stratigraphy; History of paleontology in New York. 

Guide to Excursions in the Fossiliferous Rocks of New York. i2 4p. 1899. 

Itineraries of 32 trips covering nearly the entire series of Paleozoic rocks, prepared specially 
for the use of teachers and students desiring tc acquaint themselves more intimately with the 
classic rocks of this State.; =. 

Entomology. i6p. J1899. Out of print. 

Economic Geology. ,'44p. 1904. Free. 

Insecticides and Fungicides. 2op. 1909. Free."^ 

Classification of New York Series of Geologic Formations. 32p. 1903. Out 
of print. Revised edition. 96p. 1912. Free. 

Geologic maps. Merrill, F. J. H. Economic and Geologic Map of the 
State of New York; issued as part of Museum Bulletin 15 and 48th Museum 
Report, V. i. 59 x 67 cm. 1894. Scale 14 miles to i inch. 15c. 

Map of the State of New York Showing the Location of Quarries of 

Stone Used for Building and Road Metal. 1897. Out of print. 

Map of the State of New York Showing the Distribution of the Rocks 

Most Useful for Road Metal. 1897. Out of print. 

Geologic Map of New York. 1901. Scale 5 miles to i inch. In atlas 

form $2. Lower Hudson sheet 60c. ';' '. 

(The lower Hudson sheet, geologically colored, comprises Rockland, Orange, Dutchess, 
Putnam, Westchester, New York, Richmond, Kings, Queens and Nassau counties, and parts 
of Sullivan, Ulster and Suffolk i^ounties; also northeastern New Tersey and part of western 

Map of New York Showing the Surface Configuration and Water Sheds 

1901. Scale 12 miles to i inch. 15c. 

Map of the State of New York Showing the Location of Its Economic 

Deposits. 1904. Scale 12 miles to i inch. 15c. 

Geologic maps on the United States Geological Survey topographic base. 
Scale I in. = I m. Those marked with an' asterisk have also been pub- 
lished separately. 

*Albany county. 1898. Out of print. 

Area around Lake Placid. 1898. 

Vicinity of Frankfort Hill [parts of Herkimer and Oneida counties]. 1899. 


Rockland county. 1899. 

Amsterdam quadrangle. 1900. 

*Parts of Albany and Rensselaer counties. lyoi. Out 0} print. 

*Niagara river. 190 1. 25c. 

Part of Clinton county. 1901. 

Oyster Bay and Hempstead quadrangles on Long Island. 190 1. 

Portions of Clinton and Essex counties. 1902. 

Part of town of Northumberland, Saratoga CO. 1903. 

Union Springs, Cayuga county and vicinity. 1903. 

*01ean quadrangle. 1903. Free. 

*Becraft Mt with 2 sheets of sections. (Scale i in. = 2 m.) 1903. 20c, 

*Canandaigua-Naples quadrangles. 1904. 20c. 

*Little Falls quadrangle. 1905. Free. 

*Watkins-Elmira quadrangles. 1905. 20c. 

*Tully quadrangle. 1905. Free. 

*Salamanca quadrangle. 1905. Free. 

*Mooers quadrangle. 1905. Free. 

Paradox Lake quadrangle. 1905. 

♦Buffalo quadrangle. 1906. Free. 

*Penn Yan-Hammondsport quadrangles. 1906. 20c 

*Rochester and Ontario Beach quadrangles. 20c. 

♦Long Lake quadrangle. Free. 

♦Nunda-Portage quadrangles. 20c. 

♦Rerasen quadrangle. 1908. Free. 

*Geneva-Ovid quadrangles. 1909. 20c. 

♦Port Leyden quadrangle. 19 10. Free. 

♦Auburn-Genoa quadrangles. 19 10. 20c. 

♦Elizabethtown and Port Henry quadrangles. 1910. 15c. 

♦Alexandria Bay quadrangle. 1910. Free. 

♦Cape Vincent quadrangle. 1910. Free, 

♦Clayton quadrangle. 1910. Free. 

♦Grindstone quadrangle. 1910. Free. 

♦Theresa quadrangle. 191 o. Free. 

*Poughkeepsie quadrangle. 191 1. Free. 

♦Honeoye-Wayland quadrangle. 191 1. 20c. 

*Broadalbin quadrangle. 191 1. Free. i 

♦Schenectady quadrangle. 191 1. Free. 

♦Saratoga-Schuylerville quadrangles. 1914. 20c. 

♦North Creek quadrangle. 1914. Free. 

♦Syracuse quadrangle. 1914. Free. 

♦Attica-Depew quadrangles. 1914. 20c. 



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